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Gladiator
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For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation).

The Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna) prob. 2nd c. AD: A thraex
and murmillo, a hoplomachus and murmillo (who is signaling his defeat
to the referee), and a matched pair.Gladiators (Latin: gladiatōrēs,
"swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword," from gladius, "sword") were
professional fighters in ancient Rome who fought against each other,
wild animals, and condemned criminals, sometimes to the death, for the
entertainment of spectators. These fights took place in arenas in many
cities from the Roman Republic period through the Roman Empire.

Contents [hide]
1 History of gladiatorial combats
1.1 Origins
2 Peak
2.1 Amphitheatres
2.2 The games
3 Decline
4 Life as a gladiator
4.1 Origins
4.2 Training
4.3 Typical combat
4.4 Life expectancy of a gladiator
4.5 Slave revolts
5 Roman attitudes
5.1 Towards gladiators
5.2 Retiarius Tunicatus
6 Female gladiators
7 Emperors as gladiators
8 Misconceptions
9 Gladiators in films and television
10 See also
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links



[edit] History of gladiatorial combats

[edit] Origins
The origin of the gladiatorial games is not known for certain. There
are two theories: that the Romans adopted gladiatorial fights from the
Etruscans, and that the games came from Campania and Lucania. The
evidence for the theory of Etruscan origin is a passage by the Greek
writer Nicolaus of Damascus in the second half of the first century
BCE describing the origins as Etruscan, an account by Isidore of
Seville during the 600s relating the Latin word for gladiator manager,
lanista, to the Etruscan word for "executioner", and also likeness of
the Roman god of hell, Charon, who accompanied the executed bodies as
they exited the arena, to the Etruscan god of death, also named
Charon. The theory that the games developed from a Campanian and
Lucanian tradition is supported by frescoes dating to the fourth
century BCE depicting funeral games in which pair of gladiators fought
to the death to commemorate the death of an important individual.
However, the Campanians could also have adapted this tradition from
the Greeks who could have introduced funeral games with human
sacrifices to the area in the eighth century BCE. Regardless of the
origin, the Romans adopted the tradition of funeral games to display
important people's status and power.

The earliest known gladiatorial games were held in 310 BC by the
Campanians (Livy 9.40.17). These games re-enacted the Campanians'
military success over the Samnites.

The first recorded Roman gladiatorial combats took place in Rome in
264 BC, at the start of the First Punic War against Carthage. Decimus
Junius Brutus Albinus staged it in honour of his dead father Brutus
Pera. It was held between three pairs of slaves chosen from among 22
prisoners of war, and held in the cattle market (Forum Boarium). The
ceremony was called a munus or “duty paid to a dead ancestor by his
descendants, with the intention of keeping alive his memory” (Baker,
Gladiator 10). Roman aristocrats soon took up the practice as an
alternative to the earlier custom of sacrificing prisoners on the
graves of warriors, with events being held for notable people and
repeated every one to five years after the person’s death.

These games became popular throughout the Empire and were especially
popular in Greece. So popular that there are many records of people in
towns where prominent citizens died virtually extorting promises of
gladiatorial games from the survivors. The aristocracy also began to
compete in having the best games so that whereas the sons of Brutus
Pera offered three matches, a century later, Titus Flamininus offered
74 matches lasting three days for his father's funeral and by the
passing of yet another century Julius Caesar promised 320 matches for
his daughter, Julia. As a result the emperors eventually had to
regulate how much could be spent on gladiatorial performances to
prevent members of the elite from bankrupting themselves.

Gradually, as the connection to funerals faded in the late second
century BC, the funeral games gradually transformed into public
performances. Julius Caesar eventually owned so many gladiators that
the Senate, fearing the use such a "private army" could be put to,
passed a law limiting private citizens to owning no more than 640
gladiators.[1] The moment when a true split from the funeral backdrop
occurred was after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. Bad
omens plagued the city and the games were seen as a method to please
the gods and save Rome. During the first century A.D., giving games
even became a requirement of some public offices.

Over time the games had became integrated ever more into the Imperial
cult through games financed by the state or by the Emperors as a means
to get public approval, and especially so in the provincial towns.
After Caesars' death a clear distinction between games organized by
public officials (ludi) and those held by private citizens (munera)
was set. Although it was still possible for private citizens to
organise their own gladiatorial games, Augustus decreed that they
could use no more than 120 gladiators and the days on which such
private games could be organised were limited: from December 2 to
December 8, during the Saturnalia from December 17 to December 23 (the
Winter solstice), and between March 19 and March 23 for the Spring
celebration of Quinquatria.


[edit] Peak

[edit] Amphitheatres

Roman arena at Arles, inside view.The popularity of the games resulted
in the construction of proper venues and transformation of others
(such as the Roman Forum) into spaces for the spectacles.

Gladiator fights took place in these amphitheatres during the
afternoon of a full day event. The amphitheaters built were made of
wood and were usually neither structurally sound, often being prone to
collapse,[2] nor did they survive the fires of Rome. The first
permanent amphitheater in Rome dates to around 30 BC. Not until AD 70
and Vespasian's reign did plans for a purpose built stone venue for
the games develop. The Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium) was unveiled
in AD 80.

The Stone Pine, a conifer native to the Iberian Peninsula was often
planted near the local amphitheatre in foreign countries. The aromatic
pinecones were traditionally burnt in bowls (tazze = cups) to mask the
smell of the arena. The word “arena” means sand, a reference to the
thick layer of sand on the floor for the purpose of soaking up the
blood.

The spectator seating in amphitheatres was originally "disorderly and
indiscriminate" until Augustus was upset at the insult to a senator,
to whom no one offered a seat at a crowded games in Puteoli.

"In consequence of this the senate decreed that, whenever any public
show was given anywhere, the first row of seats should be reserved for
senators; and at Rome he would not allow the envoys of the free and
allied nations to sit in the orchestra, since he was informed that
even freedmen were sometimes appointed. He separated the soldiery from
the people. He assigned special seats to the married men of the
commons, to boys under age their own section and the adjoining one to
their preceptors; and he decreed that no one wearing a dark cloak
should sit in the middle of the house. He would not allow women to
view even the gladiators except from the upper seats, though it had
been the custom for men and women to sit together at such shows. Only
the Vestal virgins were assigned a place to themselves, opposite the
praetor's tribunal"
(Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars Augustus, XLIV).


[edit] The games

The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. A photograph of the best known Roman era
amphitheatre taken in the early evening. Gladiatorial combats were the
main event and usually held around this time of day.The games were
carefully and precisely planned by an organizer (editor) on behalf of
the emperor. The combinations of animals and gladiator types were
meticulously planned, such that the show would be most appealing to
the audience. Gladiators would be publicly displayed in the Roman
forum to large crowds one to two days prior to the actual event.
Programmes containing the gladiatorial and personal history of the
fighters were passed out. Banquets for the gladiators were also held
the evening before the games and many attended these as well. Even the
criminals (noxii) listed to fight were at times permitted to attend.

When the day of the event came, gladiator fights were preceded by
animal-on-animal fights, animal hunts (venationes), and public
executions of condemned criminals (damnati) during lunchtime. As it
was considered bad taste to watch the executions, the upper classes
would usually leave and return after lunch. The Emperor Claudius was
often criticised because he usually stayed in the stadium to watch the
executions. The damnati were sometimes required to fight battle
recreations or in paired gladiatorial combats against each. The winner
then fought a new opponent and so on until only one was left alive.
Usually this "winner" was then himself put to death but he could be
spared if he showed sufficient bravery. Under Nero, it became the
practice to perform plays adapted from myths in which people died and
assigning the role of a character who would die to a condemned man.
The audience would then watch the play, and the actual killing of the
condemned man in the same manner as the fictional character.[3] Before
the afternoon fights began, a procession (pompa) was led into the
arena containing the organizer, his servants, blacksmiths to show that
the weapons were in order, servants carrying weaponry and armour, and
the gladiators themselves. Next came the checking of the weapons to
make sure they were real (probatio armorum) by the editor of the
games. In Rome this would be by the emperor himself, or he could
bestow the honour upon a guest.

Like today, the games had ticket scalpers or Ticket touts(Locarii),
people who buy up seats and sell them on at an inflated price. Martial
in his Epigrams wrote "Hermes divitiae locariorum" or “Hermes means
riches for the ticket scalpers” so scalping/touting seems to have been
a common practice. The mentioned Hermes was a famous gladiator, not
the deity, who was called Mercury by the Romans.

During the fights musicians played accompaniments altering their tempo
to match that of the combat in the style now familiar with music in
action movies. Typical instruments were a long straight trumpet
(tubicen), a large curved instrument (Cornu) similar to an exaggerated
French horn and a water organ (hydraulis). The Romans loved burlesque
and pantomime and these musicians were often dressed as animals with
names such as "flute playing bear" (Ursus tibicen) and "horn-blowing
chicken" (Pullus cornicen), names sometimes found displayed on
contemporary mosaics.

Like today’s athletes, gladiators did product endorsements.
Particularly successful gladiators would endorse goods in the arena
before commencing a fight and have their names promoting products on
the Roman equivalent of billboards.[4]


A flask depicting the final phase of the fight between a murmillo
(winning) and a thraex.During gladiatorial combat, it was preferable
for gladiators not to kill each other; technically, they were slaves,
but they also often had years of intensive training and therefore were
quite valuable. Gladiators were instructed to inflict non-lethal
wounds upon each other, and often lived long, rather successful lives
able to purchase their freedom after three years. However, accidents
did happen at times resulting in death, and gladiators who failed to
display bravery in combat could be executed by order of the emperor.
After fights, the bodies of the gladiators were buried in a manner
depending on the status of the fighter.

As with modern sports, spectators liked to support “sides” (factiones)
which they called the “great shields” (scutarii) and the “little
shields” (parmularii). The “great shields” were lightly armoured
defensive fighter types. Whereas the “little shields” were the more
aggressive heavily armoured fighter types. Fighting without a shield
would have been classed as a “great shield” due to fighting style.
“Little shields” always had an advantage early in a match (as attested
by the odds given by contemporary Bookmakers) but the longer the match
lasted the greater the advantage for the “great shield” as his
opponent tired much more quickly due to heavier armour and also as
they usually had helmets with more restricted vision. Spectators also
had local rivalries. During games at Pompeii, Pompeians and spectators
from Nuceria traded insults which led to stone throwing and eventually
a riot broke out with many being killed or wounded. Nero was furious
and banned the games at Pompeii for ten years. The story is told in
graffiti on the walls of Pompeii with much boasting of their "victory"
over Nuceria.

Julius Caesar in 59 BC started a daily newspaper called the Acta
Diurna (daily acts) that reported gladiator news. It carried news of
gladiatorial contests, games, astrological omens, notable marriages,
births and deaths, public appointments, and trials and executions. The
Acta's content varied over time depending on the Emperor's whims and
the tastes of the public.


[edit] Decline
Gladiator games were not loved by all emperors and people throughout
Roman history. The enthusiasm for the spectacle by Augustus, Caligula,
and Nero contrasted the apathy of Tiberius and the discontent of
Cicero, Seneca, and Tertullian. As well, barbarian attack on the
provinces during the third century AD led to an economic recession and
decreased funds for such shows. Some emperors, such as Gordianus I,
Gordianus III, and Probus did continue to organize costly
performances, but privately funded shows, especially those in the
provinces, declined. In the Eastern Empire invasion had much less of
an effect on the economy and gladiator shows prevailed. The gradual
downfall in the east has been attributed to the effect of Christians
on the gore-filled games. Although Christians saw the combats as
murder they had no objection to the killing and bloodshed in itself
but rather objected to the moral harm done to the spectators. They
also saw the arena as a place of martyrdom and both refused to
participate as spectators and sought for an end to the gladiator shows
although they had no objection to the continuation of animal-on-animal
fights and animal hunts (venationes). Constantine I issued an edict in
AD 325 which briefly ended the games.
"in times in which peace and peace relating to domestic affairs
prevail, bloody demonstrations displease us. Therefore we order that
there may be no more gladiator combats. Those, who were condemned to
become gladiators for their crimes, are to work from now on in the
mines. Thus they pay for their crimes, without having to pour their
blood."
Speculation that the edict was a permanent ban is refuted by the
presence of unchallenged games only three years later.

An indication of the declining popularity is that in AD 354 of the 176
official holidays with games, the main event for 102 of these were
theatre performances, 64 were chariot races and gladiatorial combats
were held on only 10 days. In AD 367 Valentinianus I placed a ban on
sentencing Christians to the arena, but the sentencing of non-
Christians remained unchanged. Christianity became the official
religion of the Roman Empire in AD 393 under the reign of Theodosius.
The emperor himself sought to ban heathen festivals, but gladiator
shows continued. Their programmes, however, were very limited due to
financial reasons and the audience dwindled as many converted to
Christianity. Honorius, Theodosius' son, finally decreed the end of
gladiatorial contests in 399 AD. The last known gladiator competition
in the city of Rome occurred on January 1, 404 AD.
It is speculated that gladiator fights were no longer practiced by AD
440, as they were not mentioned by Bishop Salvianus in a pamphlet
attacking public shows. It would seem only appropriate for the
inclusion of gladiator games had they still occurred.


[edit] Life as a gladiator

[edit] Origins
Gladiators could have been either prisoners of war, slaves or
criminals condemned to gladiator schools (ad ludum gladiatorium).
There were also a number of volunteer gladiators (auctoratus). By the
end of the republic as many as half of the gladiators were auctoratii.
These were either sons of prominent men perhaps looking for a radical
change, poor men attracted by the potential for fame or relinquishing
themselves from poverty, or even men with a monetary purpose, such as
Sisinnes who sought to earn money to buy a friend's freedom. All
gladiators kept the monetary prizes that they won in the arena and
Titus is on record for paying a freed slave 1,000 gold aurei to return
for a single match. These men came from all different backgrounds but
were soon united as they entered the training schools. By the end of
the Republic, about half of the gladiators were volunteers
(auctorati), who took on the status of a slave for an agreed-upon
period of time, similar to the indentured servitude that was common in
the late second millennium. Sometimes people were forced to fight in
one off events. Caligula was known for forcing anyone he did not like
to fight, including spectators who annoyed him at the games (Cassius
Dio 59.10, 13-14).
One of the benefits of becoming a gladiator for slaves and criminals
is that they were then allowed to have relationships with women and
although they themselves could never become Roman citizens, if they
gained their freedom, their marriages then were legally recognised and
their children could then become citizens.[5]

Gladiators were very proud of their ethnic origins and made sure their
true origin was known to the public if they fought under a title
suggesting another ethnic group. Even in death they made sure their
race was inscribed on their headstone. After Judea was “pacified”
there was a large increase in the number of Jewish gladiators as it
was common practice under Titus and Vespasian to sentence Jewish
rebels and criminals to gladiatorial schools.[6]

Left-handed gladiators were popular and a rare novelty, their fights
were always advertised as a special event. As with modern-day "lefty"
fencers, tennis players and other sportsman, these left-handers had a
large advantage as they were trained to fight right-handers who were
themselves not trained to defend against a left-hander. Mentions of
left handedness on gravestones have been found.

Research on the remains of 70 Murmillos and Retiariae gladiators found
at an ancient site in Ephesus has shown that, contrary to popular
belief, gladiators were probably overweight and also ate a high energy
vegetarian diet consisting of mainly barley, beans and dried fruit.
Fabian Kanz of the Austrian Archaeological Institute said he believed
gladiators "cultivated layers of fat to protect their vital organs
from the cutting blows of their opponents". Gladiators were sometimes
known as hordearii, which means "eaters of barley". Although
considered an inferior grain to wheat (a punishment for Legionaries
was to replace their wheat ration with barley), gladiators probably
preferred it as Romans believed that barley contributed to strength
and covered the arteries with a layer of fat which helped to reduce
bleeding. Other findings from the research indicate gladiators fought
barefoot in sand.[7]


[edit] Training

Model of The Great Gladiatorial Training School (Ludus
Magnus).Estimations are that there were more than 100 gladiator
schools (ludi) throughout the empire. Two of the more famous are the
school in Capua where Spartacus was trained and the school in Pompeii
that was buried in the 79 AD eruption of Vesuvius. One of the largest
schools was based in Ravenna. There were four schools in Rome: Ludus
Magnus (the most important), Ludus Dacus, Ludus Gallicus, and Ludus
Matutinus (school for gladiators dealing with animals). The schools
had barracks for the gladiators with small cells and a large training
ground. The most impressive had seating for spectators to watch the
men train and some even had boxes for the emperor.

Prospective gladiators (novicius) upon entering a gladiator school
swore an oath (sacramentum) giving their lives to the gods of the
underworld and vowing to accept, without protest, humiliation by any
means. Volunteers also signed a contract (auctoramentum) with a
gladiator manager (lanista) stating how often they were to perform,
which weapons they would use, and how much they would earn.
Prospectives also went under a physical examination by a doctor to
determine if they were both physically capable of the rigorous
training and aesthetically pleasing. Once accepted the novicius
usually had his debts forgiven and was given a sign up fee. For as
long as he was a gladiator he was well fed and received high quality
medical care. Overall, gladiators were united as members of a familia
gladiatoria and became second to the prestige of the school. They also
joined unions (collegia) formed to ensure proper burials for fallen
members and compensation for their families.

As a rule gladiators, slaves and criminals had tattoos (stigma)
applied as an identifying mark on the face, legs and hands
(legionnaires were also tattooed but only on their hands). This
practice continued until the emperor Constantine banned them on the
face by decree in AD 325.[8]

Training was under teachers called “Doctores” and involved the
learning of a series of “numbers”, which were broken down into various
phases much as a play is a series of acts broken down into scenes.
Sometimes fans complained that a gladiator fought too “mechanically”
when he followed the “numbers” too closely. Gladiators would even be
taught how to die correctly. Each type of gladiator had its own
teacher; doctore secutorum, doctore thracicum, etc. Although
gladiators in times of need helped train legionaries, they were not
usually good soldiers themselves as a result of this choreographed
style of training. Within a training-school there was a competitive
hierarchy of grades (paloi) through which individuals were promoted.
They trained using two meter poles (palus) buried in the ground. The
levels were named for the training pole and were primus palus,
secundus palus, and so on. It was also rare for a novicius to train in
more than one gladiatorial style. Once a gladiator had finished
training but had not yet fought in an arena he was called a “Tiro”.


[edit] Typical combat
The announcement for the coming shows were often made by painting the
program (libellus) on the walls of the city which also often included
depictions of the featured fighters. Sometimes the results of combats
were added to the advertisement after the matches. A "v" over the
fighters image stood for "vicit" meaning he won. A "p" stood for
"periit" meaning he was killed. A "m" stood for "missus", meaning he
lost but was spared. Games were often commemorated with a
representation of the fights with an inscription (i.e. Astyanax
defeated Kalendio). If one was killed a circle with a diagonal line
through it (usually Ø but sometimes excluding the line within the
circle) was inscribed over the defeated man's head.

An average game had between ten and thirteen pairs (Ordinarii) of
gladiators, with a single bout lasting around ten to fifteen minutes.
They were usually of differing types. However, sponsor or audience
could request other combinations like several gladiators fighting
together (Catervarii) or specific gladiators against each other. As a
rule gladiators only fought others from within the same school or
troupe (ad ludum gladiatorium) but sometimes specific gladiators would
be requested to fight one from another troupe (Postulaticii).
Sometimes a lanista had to rely on substitutes (supposititii) if the
requested gladiator was already dead or incapacitated. The Emperor
could have his own gladiators (Fiscales). The largest contest of
gladiators ever given was by the emperor Trajan in Dacia as part of a
victory celebration in 107 AD and included 5,000 pairs of fighters.

Some matches were advertised as “sine missione” (without release)
meaning “to the death”. The referees allowed these fights to continue
as long as it took to get a result. Although already a rare event,
Augustus outlawed “sine missiones” due to the expense of compensating
the “Lanistas” but they were later reintroduced.

When one gladiator was wounded the spectators would yell out one of
several traditional cheers such as "habet, hoc habet” (he’s had it) or
"habet, peractum est” (he's had it, it's all over), the referee would
then end the fight by separating the combatants with his staff. A
gladiator could also acknowledge defeat by raising a finger (ad
digitum), The referee would then step in, stopping the combat, and
refer the decision of the defeated gladiator’s fate to the games
sponsor (munerarius) who would decide whether he should live or die
after taking the audiences wishes into account or considering how well
he had fought. If a gladiator was killed it was normal practice for
the games sponsor to pay compensation to the owner (Lanista) of up to
100 times the gladiator's value. For the death of a popular gladiator
this could be very expensive.

Fights were generally not to the death during the Republic, but
gladiators were still killed or maimed accidentally. Claudius was
infamous for rarely sparing the life of a defeated Retiarius. He liked
to watch his face as he died, as the Retiarius was the only gladiator
that never wore a helmet. Suetonius recounts a combat where the death
of an opponent was called a murder. "Once a band of five retiarii in
tunics (retiarius tunicatus), matched against the same number of
secutores, yielded without a struggle; but when their death was
ordered, one of them caught up his trident and slew all the victors.
Caligula bewailed this in a public proclamation as a most cruel
murder." (Lives of the Twelve Caesars XXX.3)


Mosaic at the National Archaeological Museum in Madrid showing a
retiarius named Kalendio (shown surrendering in the upper section)
fighting a secutor named Astyanax. The Ø sign by Kalendio's name
implies he was killed after surrendering.The figure of a referee is
frequently depicted on mosaics as standing in the background,
sometimes accompanied by an assistant and carrying a staff with which
to hold back a gladiator after his opponent signified submission. This
implies contests were fought with fixed rules. We know from mosaics,
and from surviving skeletons that gladiators primarily aimed for the
head and the major arteries under the arm and behind the knee.
[citation needed]

Gladiators were paid each time they fought. The winner of a match
received from the editor a palm branch and additionally an award such
as a golden bowl, crown or a sum of money in the form of gold coins.
Money was also awarded to the victor by the crowd and was collected on
a silver tray. A laurel crown was awarded for an especially
outstanding performance. The victor then ran around the perimeter of
the amphitheatre, waving the palm. Gladiators were allowed to keep any
money or gold they received as a prize. The ultimate prize awarded to
gladiators was a permanent discharge from the obligation to fight. As
a symbol of this award, the editor gave the gladiator a wooden sword
(rudis), Martial (Spect. 27) mentions a particularly famous match
between two gladiators named Priscus and Verus, who fought so evenly
and bravely for so long that when they both acknowledged defeat at the
same instant, the emperor Titus awarded victory to both and gave
wooden swords (rudes) to each. Gladiators (including criminals) could
earn their freedom if they survived three to five years of combat but
there was no set rule as to what a gladiator would have to do in order
to win this freedom. Usually if a gladiator won five fights, or
especially distinguished himself in a particular fight, he won the
rudis and his freedom. A famous Secutor nicknamed Flamma was awarded
the rudis four times but he chose to remain a gladiator. He was killed
in his 34th fight. Flamma's gravestone in Sicily is particularly
informative as it includes his record: Flamma, secutor, lived 30
years, fought 34 times, won 21 times, fought to a draw 9 times,
defeated 4 times, a Syrian by nationality. Delicatus made this for his
deserving comrade-in-arms.[9]

After a gladiator's defeat, if the crowd gave the signal for him to
die there was a ritual to be observed. With one knee on the ground,
the loser grasped the thigh of the victor, who, while holding the
helmet or head of his opponent, plunged his sword into his neck or cut
his throat depending on his weapon (Martial). To die well a gladiator
was not allowed to ask for mercy and was not allowed to scream when
killed. Recent research suggests that gladiators adhered to a code of
discipline, and were not as savage as once thought — they did not
resort to violence and mutilation which could occur on the
battlefields of the day. If defeated but mortally wounded the
gladiator was not killed in front of the audience but was taken from
the arena to be executed "humanely" with a hammer on the forehead in
private.[10]

After the death of a gladiator in combat, two attendants impersonating
Charon (the god of the dead) and Mercury (messenger to the gods) would
approach the body. Charon would strike the body with a mallet and
Hermes would then prod the body with a hot poker disguised as a wand
to see whether the gladiator was really dead or not. The body was then
placed on a "couch of Libitina" by bearers (libitinarii) in larger
games and taken from the arena through the Libitinarian Gate (victors
left via the Porta Triumphalis and losers the Porta Sanavivaria). In
lesser games the libitinarii often used hooks to drag the body.
Attendants then spread a fresh layer of sand (harena from where we get
the word arena) to soak up the blood. Libitina was the goddess of
funerals. After stripping the armour, the gladiator's body was then
taken to a nearby morgue (spoliarium) where by custom, as final proof
the fight was not "fixed", officials slit the man's throat to ensure
that he was truly dead.[11]


[edit] Life expectancy of a gladiator
Gladiators rarely lived past age 30 unless they were particularly
outstanding and accomplished victors but at a time when around 50
percent of Roman citizens died, from all causes, before age 25[12]
this indicates that gladiators in fact tended to live longer than the
general populace which is attributed to the extra care they received.
Reasonable estimates show that they fought on average two to three
times yearly, but there are some exceptions such as some men fighting
all nine days during one of Trajan's shows.[citation needed]

French historian George Villes evaluated 100 fights from the 1st
century CE, involving 200 gladiators, and found that 19 gladiators had
lost their lives.[citation needed] His evaluations of gladiator
gravestones indicates that the average age at time of death was around
27 years, however, historian Marcus Junkelmann points out that only
the most successful gladiators were usually given a headstone and that
the majority of the gladiators who died were at the beginning of their
career and thus not included in this average. According to Junkelmann
the majority died between 18 and 25 years of age.[citation needed]


[edit] Slave revolts
Rome had to fight three Servile Wars, the last being against one of
the most famous gladiators — Spartacus who became the leader of a
group of escaped gladiators and slaves. His revolt, which began in 73
BC, was crushed by Marcus Crassus two years later in 71 BC. After
this, gladiators were deported from Rome and other cities during times
of social disturbances, for fear that they might organize and rebel
again. As well, armouries within the schools were closely guarded and
gladiators who were potential threats were chained.


[edit] Roman attitudes

[edit] Towards gladiators
The Romans' attitude towards the gladiators was ambiguous: on the one
hand to be a gladiator was the ultimate social disgrace and in fact
they were legally designated as infamia (loss of certain public
rights);[13] but on the other hand, some successful gladiators rose to
celebrity status and even those of senatorial and equites families
seemed to join up as gladiators (the Larinum decree under Tiberius
banned those of such status from becoming gladiators, which implies
that this must have been happening).[14] Being a Lanista was a very
lucrative business,[15] but it also was viewed as among the lowest
professions on the social scale and well below prostitution, although
paradoxically if the Lanista had other sources of income he carried no
stigma at all. Likewise if the gladiator took no fee for fighting then
the legal stigma of infamia did not apply and the gladiator legally
lost no social status although still remaining publicly disgraced.

Outside the intellectual circle of people such as Pliny the Younger
(whose dislike for gladiatorial shows may have been more class- than
conscience-based), there was widespread acceptance of gladiatorial
shows and little qualm as to their brutality.

Many ancient writers give specific instances and detailed accounts of
the combats that provide invaluable insight into Roman attitudes:
“Many ladies of distinction, however, and senators, disgraced
themselves by appearing in the amphitheatre” (Tacitus 15.32). The
Roman historian, Cassius Dio (62.17.3), writes of a festival that Nero
held in honour of his mother: “....There was another exhibition that
was at once most disgraceful and most shocking, when men and women not
only of the equestrian but even of the senatorial order appeared as
performers in the orchestra, in the Circus, and in the hunting-
theatre, like those who are held in lowest esteem; they drove horses,
killed wild beasts and fought as gladiators, some willingly and some
sore against their will". Emperor Marcus Aurelius believed gladiator
shows to be boring, but also saw the gladiators themselves as
privileged athletes and so took extraordinary measures to prevent
bloodshed and death (Cassius Dio 71.29.4) For example he decreed that
swords have a blunt point and banned iron blades.

Gladiators often developed large followings of women, who apparently
saw them as sexual objects despite it being socially unacceptable for
citizen women to have sexual contact with them.

What was the youthful charm that so fired Eppia? What hooked her? What
did she see in him to make her put up with being called "the
gladiator's moll"? Her poppet, her Sergius, was no chicken, with a dud
arm that prompted hope of early retirement. Besides his face looked a
proper mess, helmet-scarred, a great wart on his nose, an unpleasant
discharge always trickling from one eye. But he was a gladiator. That
word makes the whole breed seem handsome, and made her prefer him to
her children and country, her sister, her husband. Steel is what they
fall in love with. (Juvenal: Satires: 6.102 ff. Translated by P.
Green).

There is an inscription on a wall in Pompeii that says the Thracian
gladiator Celadus was "suspirum et decus puellarum", literally "the
sigh and glory of the girls." Faustina the Younger, the mother of the
emperor Commodus, was said to have conceived Commodus with a
gladiator, but Commodus likely invented this story himself. Despite or
because of the prohibition many rich women sought intimate contact
with gladiators and there are several instances of historians
mentioning Senators wives running off to live with gladiators. The
ancient celebrity and the festivity before the fights gave the women
an opportunity to meet them.

Despite the extreme dangers and hardships of the profession, some
gladiators were volunteers (called auctorati) who fought for money;
effectively this career was a sort of last chance for people who had
fallen into financial troubles. Indeed, their combat skills were such
that, when he had no alternative, Gaius Marius had gladiators train
the legionaries in single combat. They were also frequently depicted
in art, the Gladiator Mosaic, or a Bignor Roman villa showing Cupids
as gladiators. Souvenir bowls were also produced depicting named
gladiators in combat.


[edit] Retiarius Tunicatus
Main article: Retiarius
Even lower on the social scale were gladiators considered effeminate.
They appear to have fought primarily as Retiarii or more specifically
Retiarius Tunicatus, named for the tunic they wore to differentiate
them from normal Retiarii who fought bare chested. Although mentioned
by Juvenal, Seneca and Suetonius very little detail is given. They are
referred to as training in an “indecent part of the gladiator's
school” and fighting in a “disgraceful type of armament”. Juvenal
mentions the trainers practice of keeping separate "from their fellow
retiarii the wearers of the ill-famed tunic”.[16]

It was thought by their contemporaries that they willingly became
Retiarii to exhibit both their vanity and contempt for disgrace as
their faces were not hidden by a helmet as was the case with other
gladiator types.

"In this way they incurred death instead of disfranchisement; for they
fought just as much as ever, especially since their contests were
eagerly witnessed, so that even Augustus used to watch them in company
with the praetors who superintended the contests" (Cassius Dio, LVI.
25.7).

The only named example of this class of gladiator was Gracchus, an
aristocrat and descendant of the Gracchi who was infamous for his
marriage (as a bride) to a male horn player. It is recorded by Cassius
that he voluntarily fought, not only as a Retiarius Tunicatus, but
wore a conical hat adorned with gold lace and ribbons during the
combat (Gracchus was also chief of the priests of Mars (Salii) for
whom this hat was normal attire).


[edit] Female gladiators
Main article: Female gladiator
Female gladiators[17] also existed. Women also often fought as
Venetores (wild animal hunting) but these are not considered true
gladiators.[18]

The Emperor Domitian liked to stage torchlit fights between dwarves
and women, according to Suetonius in The Twelve Caesars. From
depictions it appears they fought bare-chested and rarely wore helmets
no matter what type of gladiator they fought as.

Women apparently fought at night, and this being the time that the
games main events were held indicates the possible importance or
rarity of female gladiators. Most modern scholars consider female
gladiators a novelty act due to the sparse writings about them but
those ancient historians that do mention them do so “casually” which
suggests that female gladiators were "more widespread than direct
evidence might otherwise indicate".[19] The author of an inscription
found in Pompeii boasts of being the first editor to bring female
gladiators to the town.

Dio Cassius (62.3.1) mentions that not only women but children fought
in a gladiatorial event that Nero sponsored in 66 AD. It is known the
emperor Nero also forced the wives of some Roman senators into
amphitheatres, presumably to fight.

A 1st or 2nd century Marble relief from Halicarnassus suggests that
some women fought in heavy armour. Both women are depicted as
provocatrices in combat. The inscription names them as “Amazon” and
“Achillia” and mentions that both received an honourable discharge
(missio) from the arena despite fighting each other (both deemed to
have won).

Mark Vesley, a Roman social historian speculates that as gladiatorial
schools were not fit places for women, they may have studied under
private tutors in the collegia iuvenum. These schools were for
training high ranking males over the age of 14 in martial arts but
Vesley found three references to women training there as well
including one who died..."To the divine shades of Valeria Iucunda, who
belonged to the body of the iuvenes. She lived 17 years, 9 months".

A female Roman skeleton unearthed in Southwark, London in 2001 was
identified as a female gladiator, but this was on the basis that
although wealthy she was buried as an outcast outside the main
cemetery, had pottery lamps of Anubis (i.e., Mercury, the gladiatorial
master of ceremonies), a lamp with a depiction of a fallen gladiator
engraved and bowls containing burnt pinecones from a Stone Pine placed
in the grave. The only Stone Pines in Britain at the time were those
planted around the London amphitheatre as the pinecones of this
particular species were traditionally burnt during games. Most experts
believe the identification to be erroneous but the Museum of London
states it is "70 percent probable" that the Great Dover Street Woman
was a gladiator. Hedley Swain, head of early history at the Museum
states: "No single piece of evidence says that she is a gladiator.
Instead, there’s simply a group of circumstantial evidence that makes
it an intriguing idea". She is now on display at the end of the Roman
London section of the Museum of London. This gladiator was the subject
of a program on the UK's Channel 4.[20]


[edit] Emperors as gladiators
Caligula, Titus, Hadrian, Lucius Verus, Caracalla, Geta and Didius
Julianus were all said to have performed in the arena.[21] It is
uncertain if these performances were one-time-only or repeated
appearances and there is question regarding the risk as the emperors
chose their opponents and no one was likely to injure an emperor.
Commodus, however, is known for his passion for public performance and
is remembered for his participation in gladiatorial shows as a Secutor
fighting under the title of "Hercules". He is also known for his
voluntary role as a bestiarii. According to Gibbon, Commodus once
killed 100 lions in a single day.[22] Later, he decapitated a running
ostrich with a specially designed dart[23] and afterwards carried the
bleeding head of the dead bird and his sword over to the section where
the Senators sat and gesticulated as though they were next.[24] On
another occasion, Commodus killed 3 elephants on the floor of the
arena by himself.[25] He is often depicted this way in art, including
a statue outside the Colosseum that he had had boastfully incribed
"Champion of secutores; only left-handed fighter to conquer twelve
times (as I recall the number) one thousand men". Commodus also
dedicated an inscription that claimed 620 victories as a gladiator. He
also raced chariots, chased animals in the arena, hunted wild animals
from the stands and was so impressive that it is said that he rarely
needed a second spear to kill his prey.[26] According to Pliny,
Emperor Claudius fought a whale trapped in the harbor in front of a
group of spectators.[27]


[edit] Misconceptions

Pollice Verso ("With a Turned Thumb"), an 1872 painting by Jean-Léon
Gérôme, is a well known historical painter's researched conception of
a gladiatorial combat.It is known that the audience (or sponsor or
emperor) pointed their thumbs a certain way if they wanted the loser
to be killed (called a pollice verso, literally "with turned thumb"),
but it is not clear which way they actually pointed. A thumbs up
(called pollux infestus) was an insult to Romans so is unlikely to
have meant sparing a life. The clear "thumbs up" and "thumbs down"
image is not a product of historical sources, but of Hollywood and
epic films such as Quo Vadis. It is thought they may have raised their
fist with the thumb inside it (pollice compresso, literally
"compressed thumbs") if they wanted the loser to live. One popular
belief is that the "thumbs down" meant lower your weapon, and let the
loser live and a thumbs up sign pointed towards the throat or chest,
signaled the gladiator to stab him there. Some scholars believe that a
hand movement was involved as the notion of "turning" does not seem to
fit the action of merely extending a thumb. One of the few sources to
allude to the use of the "thumbs up" and "thumbs down" gestures in the
Roman arena comes from Satire III of Juvenal (3.34-37)[28] and seems
to indicate that, contrary to modern usage, the thumbs down signified
that the losing gladiator was to be spared and that the thumbs up
meant he was to be killed. A carved relief of a gladiator being spared
also exists that shows the hand "sign" as a thumb laid flat along the
hand (pressed?) with two fingers extended and two clenched. This has
led some to believe those who wanted the gladiator killed waved their
thumbs in any direction they wanted, and those who wanted him spared
kept their thumbs pressed against their hands.


Recreation of a combat between a thraex and murmillo in the Carnuntum
Roman ruins. A contemporary incription credits Carnuntum with having
the fourth largest amphitheatre in the Roman Empire. Of interest is
that research indicates the physiques of the fighters pictured above
possibly reflects reality more closely than movie depictions. As a
rule gladiators cultivated fat as well as muscle for protection from
blows. With exceptions a typical gladiator was expected to fight in
only three to five bouts per year with each lasting around 15
minutesThe now famous gladiatorial salute “Ave Caesar, morituri te
salutant” or “Hail Caesar, they who are about to die salute you” is
another product of movies. This salute was only mentioned by Suetonius
(Lives of the Twelve Caesars, Claudius, XXI, 12­14) as happening once,
spoken by condemned men (damnati) to Claudius at a naumachia (a staged
naval battle) and they used the word “imperator” (Emperor) not Caesar.
Tacitus also wrote of this event:

“although they were criminals, they fought with the spirit of brave
men. Their (the survivors') reward was exemption from the penalty of
wholesale execution”.

The cutting up of the bodies to feed the animals is another common
misconception and is mentioned only by Suetonius as an extraordinary
and unheard of action that Caligula ordered to be done only once. The
bodies of noxii and damnati were either buried or thrown into rivers,
this being the traditional Roman disposal method for the bodies of
executed criminals while other gladiators were often buried with
honours by their "union" (collegia) or friends. Animal carcasses were
either disposed of or distributed to the poor for sustenance.

Although ancient Romans did not normally wear hats (went heads bare
capite aperto) and this is seen in today's movie depictions of games,
it was actually customary for free men to wear white woolen conical
hats when attending games and festivals (Martial xi.7. xiv.1 Suetonius
Ner.57. Seneca Epist.18). The hats were a symbol of liberty.


[edit] Gladiators in films and television

Thraex Gladiator helmet in the Pergamon Museum, Berlin.Gladiators
feature frequently in many epic films and television series set in
this period. These include films such as four versions of Ben-Hur,
Spartacus (1960), Gladiator (2000) and Demetrius and the Gladiators
(1954), Quo Vadis, as well as the television series A.D. (1985) (which
features a female gladiator), and Rome.





[edit] See also
Bestiarii
List of Roman gladiator types
Gladiator (2000 film)
The Far Arena
Heroscape

[edit] References
^ Rome Exposed
^ During the reign of Tiberius, a wooden amphitheater collapsed
killing either twenty thousand spectators (according to Suetonius) or
fifty thousand (according to Tacitus). Suetonius also records (XLIII)
that at the games in honour of Augustas' grandsons, the spectators
were in a panic for fear the amphitheatre would collapse. Unable to
calm them Augustas left his own seat and sat in the section most
likely to fail.
^ K. M. Coleman, The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 80, 1990 (1990),
pp. 44-73]
^ Not Such a Wonderful Life: A Look at History in Gladiator IGN movies
February 10, 2000
^ The Gladiator Brooklyn College Classics Department
^ Roman Civilization History 206 Bates College
^ Roman gladiators were fat vegetarians, ABC Science April 5, 2004.
^ Greek and Roman Tattoos
^ Flamma tombstone
^ "Head injuries of Roman gladiators", Forensic Science International,
Volume 160, Issue 2–3, Pages 207–216 F. Kanz, K. Grossschmidt
^ Archaeology: Vox Populi Discover Magazine July 2006
^ Roman Life Expectancy University of Texas
^ Roman Law - Infamia Smiths Dictionary 1875 pp634‑636
^ http://www.personal.kent.edu/~bkharvey/roman/texts/sclaurin.htm
^ Cicero wrote of his friend Atticus recovering his entire investment
in a gladiator troupe after two performances.
^ The Retiarius Tunicatus of Suetonius, Juvenal, and Petronius" (1989)
by Steven M. Cerutti and L. Richardson, Jr., The American Journal of
Philology, 110, P589-594
^ In Latin gladiator has no feminine form. However, while gladiator is
preferred, "gladiatrix" is acceptable to historians.
^ "Female Gladiators of the Ancient Roman World", Journal of Combative
Sport, July 2003.
^ Zoll, A. (2002). Gladiatrix: The True Story of History’s Unknown
Woman Warrior. New York: Berkley Publishing Group, p. 27.
^ Gladiator Girl Channel 4 May 14, 2001
^ Barton, Carlin (1995). The Sorrows of the Ancient Romans: The
Gladiator and the Monster. Page 66. Princeton University Press. ISBN
0691010919.
^ Gibbon pg 106 "disgorged at once a hundred lions; a hundred darts"
^ Gibbon, Edward The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire': Volume I'
Everyman's Library (Knopf) New York. 1910. pg 106 "with arrows whose
point was shaped in the form of a cresent"
^ Fox, Robin The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to
Hadrian Basic Books. 2006 pg 446 "brandishing a sword in one hand and
bloodied neck...He gesticulated at the Senate."
^ Scullard, H.H The Elephant in the Greek and Roman World Thames and
Hudson. 1974 pg 252
^ The Gladiator Emperor UNRV History
^ Fox, Robin The Classical World: An Epic History from Homer to
Hadrian Basic Books. 2006 pg 576
^ Juvenal III

[edit] Further reading
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
GladiatorGladiator: Film and History, edited by Martin M. Winkler.
Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 2004 (hardcover, ISBN 1-4051-1043-0;
paperback, ISBN 1-4051-1042-2).
James Grout: Gladiators, part of the Encyclopædia Romana
Violence and the Romans: The Arena Spectacles
The Revolt of Spartacus A narrative essay.
Daniel P Mannix: Those About To Die, Ballantine Books, New York 1958
Michael Grant: Gladiators, Penguin Books, London 1967, reprinted 2000,
ISBN 0-14-029934-3
Roland Auguet: Cruelty and Civilization: The Roman Games, Paris 1970;
English reprint Routledge 1994
IMDB- movie titles containg 'Gladiator' etc.; click also on keywords
Thomas Wiedemann: Emperors and Gladiators, Routledge 1992
Fik Meijer: The Gladiators: History's Most Deadly Sport, Thomas Dunne
Books 2003; reprinted by St. Martin's Griffin 2007. ISBN-13
978-0-312-36402-1; ISBN-10 0-312-36402-4.
Eckart Köhne and Cornelia Ewigleben (editors); Gladiators and Caesars;
British Museum Press, London, 2000; ISBN 0-5202279-80-1
Gladiators: Heroes of the Roman Amphitheatre
The Roman Gladiator
History of the Roman Empire. Culture. Roman Gladiators:
Gladiators Archaeological Institute of America Index of articles
related to Gladiators.

[edit] External links
BBC News: Gladiator bones found in Turkey
Medicine Magazine: Roman gladiators beat pharma company to
osteoporosis drug

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Sparta
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For modern day Sparta, see Sparti (municipality).
For other uses, see Sparta (disambiguation).
Coordinates: 37°4′55″N, 22°25′25″E
Σπάρτα
Sparta

11th century BC – 371 BC →






Territory of ancient Sparta
Capital Sparta
Language(s) Doric Greek
Religion Polytheism
Government Oligarchy
Historical era Classical Antiquity
- Dorian invasion 11th century BC
- Peloponnesian League 546-371 BC
- Peace of Callias 371 BC

The city of Sparta (Doric Σπάρτα; Attic Σπάρτη Spartē) was a city-
state in ancient Greece, situated on the River Eurotas in the southern
part of the Peloponnese.[1] Between c. 650 and 362 B.C. it was the
dominant military power in the region, and as such was recognised as
the overall leader of the combined Greek forces during the Greco-
Persian Wars.[2] Between 431-404 B.C., it was the principal enemy of
Athens during the Peloponnesian War.[3] By the year 362 B.C., Sparta's
role as the dominant military power in Greece was over, but the so-
called Spartan myth continues to fascinate Western culture.[4][5] The
majority of inhabitants of Sparta were helots who, every autumn during
the Crypteia, could be killed by a Spartan citizen without fear of
blood or guilt.[6][7][8]

Contents [hide]
1 Lacedaemon
2 History
2.1 Antiquity
2.2 Rise and decline
3 Government
3.1 Constitution
3.2 State organization
3.3 Military and foreign policy
4 The Spartan world
5 Society
5.1 Helots
5.2 Military life
5.3 Role of women
5.3.1 Political, social, and economic equality
5.3.2 Sexual equality
5.3.3 Historic women
5.4 Culture
5.5 Criticism
6 Archaeology
7 Eugenics
8 Famous Spartans
9 See also
10 Notes
11 References
12 External links

[edit] Military and foreign policy
The Lacedaimonians were the only people in ancient Greece to employ a
core army of full-time soldiers. Their state institutions and system
of education were designed for the purpose of creating these superbly-
trained soldiers. The whole army consisted of these heavy armed elite
soldiers and several times their number of light armed helots and
other conscripts. In later times these were augmented with
mercenaries. The Spartans used, among other emblems, the red Greek
capital letter lambda (Λ) (displayed on their shields) as an
identification as the people of Lacedaemon, their home city-state or
polis.[19]

Sparta, by the 4th century BC, was the most powerful nation in all of
Greece. Unlike many of the Greek city-states it had only one colony,
Taras, and most of its power came from alliances with other regions.
Sparta was not an empire: no tribute was paid except in times of war.
What Sparta essentially formed was a league, and they chose their
allies strategically. For example, Sparta favoured Corinth because of
its naval fleet, and indeed Corinth sat on the ithsmus between Attica
and the Pelopennese, an important strategical position, seeing as any
Infantry invasion would have to go through Corinth. The allies would
vow to have the same friends and enemies, follow Sparta wherever they
led, and not go to war unless all the allies were in consensus. The
league's governmental structure was an oligarchy run by aristocrats;
it met in Corinth and was led by Sparta. The Congress, as it was
called, consisted of representatives from each of the allied city
states who each held one vote.

Military life

Statue of King Leonidas I in SpartaSpartan citizen boys left home for
military boarding school at the age of seven and were required to
serve in the army until age of thirty.[25] Then they passed into the
active reserve, where they remained until the age of sixty. Spartan
education from the ages of seven to thirty emphasized physical
toughness, steadfastness in military ranks, and absolute obedience to
orders. The ordinary Spartan was a citizen-warrior, or hoplite,
trained to obey and endure; he became a politician only if chosen as
ephor for a single year. He could be elected a life member of the
council after his sixtieth year, in which he would be free from
military service. Men were encouraged to marry at the age of twenty
but could not live with their families until they left their active
military service at age thirty.[25] The Spartans perfected the craft
of hoplite warfare. They called themselves "homoioi" (equals),
pointing to their common lifestyle and the discipline of the phalanx,
which demanded that no soldier be superior to his comrades.[26]

When the Spartans began military training – aged seven – they would
enter the agoge system for the education and training—everything from
physical training such as hunting and dancing, to emotional, and
spiritual training. At that age they would have to go through what was
known as the gauntlet. They would have to run around a group of older
children, who would flog them continually with whips, sometimes to
death. As they were lightly clothed, and had no bedding to speak of,
children would often put thistles in their pallet because the
prickling sensation made them feel warmer.


Perhaps the most widely known event on the efficiency of the Spartan
war-machine is related to the Persian Wars. The Spartan stand at the
Battle of Thermopylae has been repeatedly cited in a military grand
strategy context as a role model concerning the advantages of
training, strategy and bravery against extremely overwhelming odds and
is often referred to as the greatest last stand of a military force in
documented history.


嬰兒
斯巴達猶如一個大軍營,其公民的嬰兒剛出生時,便要被檢驗體質,如果不合要求,便會被拋棄至荒山野嶺;作為母親的,會用烈酒為其嬰兒洗澡,若受不了的,
則任由他死去,這是因為斯巴達人只要最好的戰士。


[編輯] 男孩
男孩在7歲前是由雙親撫養的,但其父母從小則會訓練他們成為獨立堅強的戰士,甚至有點冷酷無情。7歲後便會編入團隊進行軍訓。他們要被訓練為絕對服從,
身手敏捷,不怕艱苦的軍人,所以每年均會被火辣辣的皮鞭鞭打,並不許求饒或叫喊。當男孩過了12歲,便會被編入少年隊,只能光頭赤腳,不論天氣冷暖均只
許穿一件外衣。至20歲後,則成為正規軍人。30歲時便會成親,但還是要每天作軍訓。60歲時便會退役,但仍要作為預備軍,隨時候命。凡斯巴達男子皆會
食於公共食堂,食品粗疏,除執政官外,雖國王亦須在此會食。食時得暢談國事,少年子弟因得於此獲得政治上的知識。


[編輯] 女孩
女孩過了7歲仍留在家裡,但並不從事刺繡等雜務,而是進行艱苦的體格訓練。因為斯巴達人認為只有強壯的母親,方能孕育出勇悍的戰士。因此斯巴達的婦女都
十分堅忍,並不怕看到兒子浴血沙場。當兒子要上戰場時,她們並不會為其祝福,而是給他一個盾牌,並對其說:「孩子,帶著盾牌回來,不然就躺在盾牌上回
來。」即謂:如果你不能凱旋,就應戰死沙場。

[編輯] 波斯戰爭
主條目:波希戰爭
斯巴達人的驍勇善戰可以由波希戰爭裡得見。

在溫泉關戰役,斯巴達國王列奧尼達一世以其本國精兵300人、700名底比斯人和6000名希臘各其它城邦的聯軍,在溫泉關抵擋了數量上遠遠超過他們的
波斯軍隊,長達三天,使得波斯軍隊在頭兩天不得寸進,並且死傷慘重。但在第三天,一個希臘當地的居民背叛希臘陣營,帶領波斯軍隊沿著山區的小徑繞到希臘
聯軍的後方,見此列奧尼達解散了希臘聯軍,留下300名斯巴達精兵與700名底比斯志願軍殿後。

在經過一番激烈廝殺後,殿後的志願軍全軍覆滅,但成功阻慢波斯國王薛西斯一世所統率的大軍前進,結果最後希臘戰勝了波斯,斯巴達人應記一功。

有關300士兵戰勝波斯大軍的歷史,華納電影公司在2007年將有關歷史改變拍成了電影《300壯士:斯巴達的逆襲》(300)。不過為了顧及電影效果
的關係,和史實會有出入,包括人物造型等。
Post by mrliu918
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Gladiator
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Gladiator (disambiguation).
The Zliten mosaic from Libya (Leptis Magna) prob. 2nd c. AD: A thraex
and murmillo, a hoplomachus and murmillo (who is signaling his defeat
to the referee), and a matched pair.Gladiators (Latin: gladiatōrēs,
"swordsmen" or "one who uses a sword," from gladius, "sword") were
professional fighters in ancient Rome who fought against each other,
wild animals, and condemned criminals, sometimes to the death, for the
entertainment of spectators. These fights took place in arenas in many
cities from the Roman Republic period through the Roman Empire.
Contents [hide]
1 History of gladiatorial combats
1.1 Origins
2 Peak
2.1 Amphitheatres
2.2 The games
3 Decline
4 Life as a gladiator
4.1 Origins
4.2 Training
4.3 Typical combat
4.4 Life expectancy of a gladiator
4.5 Slave revolts
5 Roman attitudes
5.1 Towards gladiators
5.2 Retiarius Tunicatus
6 Female gladiators
7 Emperors as gladiators
8 Misconceptions
9 Gladiators in films and television
10 See also
11 References
12 Further reading
13 External links
[edit] History of gladiatorial combats
[edit] Origins
The origin of the gladiatorial games is not known for certain. There
are two theories: that the Romans adopted gladiatorial fights from the
Etruscans, and that the games came from Campania and Lucania. The
evidence for the theory of Etruscan origin is a passage by the Greek
writer Nicolaus of Damascus in the second half of the first century
BCE describing the origins as Etruscan, an account by Isidore of
Seville during the 600s relating the Latin word for gladiator manager,
lanista, to the Etruscan word for "executioner", and also likeness of
the Roman god of hell, Charon, who accompanied the executed bodies as
they exited the arena, to the Etruscan god of death, also named
Charon. The theory that the games developed from a Campanian and
Lucanian tradition is supported by frescoes dating to the fourth
century BCE depicting funeral games in which pair of gladiators fought
to the death to commemorate the death of an important individual.
However, the Campanians could also have adapted this tradition from
the Greeks who could have introduced funeral games with human
sacrifices to the area in the eighth century BCE. Regardless of the
origin, the Romans adopted the tradition of funeral games to display
important people's status and power.
The earliest known gladiatorial games were held in 310 BC by the
Campanians (Livy 9.40.17). These games re-enacted the Campanians'
military success over the Samnites.
The first recorded Roman gladiatorial combats took place in Rome in
264 BC, at the start of the First Punic War against Carthage. Decimus
Junius Brutus Albinus staged it in honour of his dead father Brutus
Pera. It was held between three pairs of slaves chosen from among 22
prisoners of war, and held in the cattle market (Forum Boarium). The
ceremony was called a munus or “duty paid to a dead ancestor by his
descendants, with the intention of keeping alive his memory” (Baker,
Gladiator 10). Roman aristocrats soon took up the practice as an
alternative to the earlier custom of sacrificing prisoners on the
graves of warriors, with events being held for notable people and
repeated every one to five years after the person’s death.
These games became popular throughout the Empire and were especially
popular in Greece. So popular that there are many records of people in
towns where prominent citizens died virtually extorting promises of
gladiatorial games from the survivors. The aristocracy also began to
compete in having the best games so that whereas the sons of Brutus
Pera offered three matches, a century later, Titus Flamininus offered
74 matches lasting three days for his father's funeral and by the
passing of yet another century Julius Caesar promised 320 matches for
his daughter, Julia. As a result the emperors eventually had to
regulate how much could be spent on gladiatorial performances to
prevent members of the elite from bankrupting themselves.
Gradually, as the connection to funerals faded in the late second
century BC, the funeral games gradually transformed into public
performances. Julius Caesar eventually owned so many gladiators that
the Senate, fearing the use such a "private army" could be put to,
passed a law limiting private citizens to owning no more than 640
gladiators.[1] The moment when a true split from the funeral backdrop
occurred was after the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 BC. Bad
omens plagued the city and the games were seen as a method to please
the gods and save Rome. During the first century A.D., giving games
even became a requirement of some public offices.
Over time the games had became integrated ever more into the Imperial
cult through games financed by the state or by the Emperors as a means
to get public approval, and especially so in the provincial towns.
After Caesars' death a clear distinction between games organized by
public officials (ludi) and those held by private citizens (munera)
was set. Although it was still possible for private citizens to
organise their own gladiatorial games, Augustus decreed that they
could use no more than 120 gladiators and the days on which such
private games could be organised were limited: from December 2 to
December 8, during the Saturnalia from December 17 to December 23 (the
Winter solstice), and between March 19 and March 23 for the Spring
celebration of Quinquatria.
[edit] Peak
[edit] Amphitheatres
Roman arena at Arles, inside view.The popularity of the games resulted
in the construction of proper venues and transformation of others
(such as the Roman Forum) into spaces for the spectacles.
Gladiator fights took place in these amphitheatres during the
afternoon of a full day event. The amphitheaters built were made of
wood and were usually neither structurally sound, often being prone to
collapse,[2] nor did they survive the fires of Rome. The first
permanent amphitheater in Rome dates to around 30 BC. Not until AD 70
and Vespasian's reign did plans for a purpose built stone venue for
the games develop. The Colosseum (Amphitheatrum Flavium) was unveiled
in AD 80.
The Stone Pine, a conifer native to the Iberian Peninsula was often
planted near the local amphitheatre in foreign countries. The aromatic
pinecones were traditionally burnt in bowls (tazze = cups) to mask the
smell of the arena. The word “arena” means sand, a reference to the
thick layer of sand on the floor for the purpose of soaking up the
blood.
The spectator seating in amphitheatres was originally "disorderly and
indiscriminate" until Augustus was upset at the insult to a senator,
to whom no one offered a seat at a crowded games in Puteoli.
"In consequence of this the senate decreed that, whenever any public
show was given anywhere, the first row of seats should be reserved for
senators; and at Rome he would not allow the envoys of the free and
allied nations to sit in the orchestra, since he was informed that
even freedmen were sometimes appointed. He separated the soldiery from
the people. He assigned special seats to the married men of the
commons, to boys under age their own section and the adjoining one to
their preceptors; and he decreed that no one wearing a dark cloak
should sit in the middle of the house. He would not allow women to
view even the gladiators except from the upper seats, though it had
been the custom for men and women to sit together at such shows. Only
the Vestal virgins were assigned a place to themselves, opposite the
praetor's tribunal"
(Suetonius Lives of the Twelve Caesars Augustus, XLIV).
[edit] The games
The Colosseum in Rome, Italy. A photograph of the best known Roman era
amphitheatre taken in the early evening. Gladiatorial combats were the
main event and usually held around this time of day.The games were
carefully and precisely planned by an organizer (editor) on behalf of
the emperor. The combinations of animals and gladiator types were
meticulously planned, such that the show would be most appealing to
the audience. Gladiators would be publicly displayed in the Roman
forum to large crowds one to two days prior to the actual event.
Programmes containing the gladiatorial and personal history of the
fighters were passed out. Banquets for the gladiators were also held
the evening before the games and many attended these as well. Even the
criminals (noxii) listed to fight were at times permitted to attend.
When the day of the event came, gladiator fights were preceded by
animal-on-animal fights, animal hunts (venationes), and public
executions of condemned criminals (damnati) during lunchtime. As it
was considered bad taste to watch the executions, the upper classes
would usually leave and return after lunch. The Emperor Claudius was
often criticised because he usually stayed in the stadium to watch the
executions. The damnati were sometimes required to fight battle
recreations or in paired gladiatorial combats against each. The winner
then fought a new opponent and so on until only one was left alive.
Usually this "winner" was then himself put to death but he could be
spared if he showed sufficient bravery. Under Nero, it became the
practice to perform plays adapted from myths in which people died and
assigning the role of a character who would die to a condemned man.
The audience would then watch the play, and the actual killing of the
condemned man in the same manner as the fictional character.[3] Before
the afternoon fights began, a procession (pompa) was led into the
arena containing the organizer, his servants, ...
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Colosseum
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
For other uses, see Colosseum (disambiguation).

Colosseum

The Colosseum
Location Regione III Isis et Serapis
Built in 70-80 AD
Built by/for Vespasian, Titus
Type of structure Amphitheatre



Colosseum
The Colosseum or Coliseum, originally the Flavian Amphitheatre (Latin:
Amphitheatrum Flavium, Italian Anfiteatro Flavio or Colosseo), is an
elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the
largest ever built in the Roman Empire. It is one of the greatest
works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering.

Occupying a site just east of the Roman Forum, its construction
started between 70 and 72 AD under the emperor Vespasian and was
completed in 80 AD under Titus, with further modifications being made
during Domitian's reign (81–96).[1] The name "Amphitheatrum Flavium"
derives from both Vespasian's and Titus's family name (Flavius, from
the gens Flavia).

Originally capable of seating around 50,000 spectators, the Colosseum
was used for gladiatorial contests and public spectacles. It remained
in use for nearly 500 years with the last recorded games being held
there as late as the 6th century. As well as the traditional
gladiatorial games, many other public spectacles were held there, such
as mock sea battles, animal hunts, executions, re-enactments of famous
battles, and dramas based on Classical mythology. The building
eventually ceased to be used for entertainment in the early medieval
era. It was later reused for such varied purposes as housing,
workshops, quarters for a religious order, a fortress, a quarry and a
Christian shrine.

Although in the 21st century it is in a ruined condition due to damage
caused by earthquakes and stone-robbers, the Colosseum has long been
seen as an iconic symbol of Imperial Rome. It is one of modern Rome's
most popular tourist attractions and still has close connections with
the Roman Catholic Church, as each Good Friday the Pope leads a
torchlit "Way of the Cross" procession to the amphitheatre.[2]

The Colosseum is also depicted on the Italian version of the five-cent
euro coin.

Contents [hide]
1 Name
2 History
2.1 Ancient
2.2 Medieval
2.3 Modern
3 Physical description
3.1 Exterior
3.2 Interior seating
3.3 Arena and hypogeum
3.4 Supporting buildings
4 Use
4.1 Today
5 Christians and the Colosseum
6 Flora
7 Popular culture
8 Colosseum Panorama
9 References
10 External links



[edit] Name
The Colosseum's original Latin name was Amphitheatrum Flavium, often
anglicized as Flavian Amphitheater. The building was constructed by
emperors of the Flavian dynasty, hence its original name.[3] This name
is still used frequently in modern English, but it is generally
unknown. In antiquity, Romans may have referred to the Colosseum by
the unofficial name Amphitheatrum Caesareum; this name could have been
strictly poetic.[4][5] This name was not exclusive to the Colosseum;
Vespasian and Titus, builders of the Colosseum, also constructed an
amphitheater of the same name in Puteoli (modern Pozzuoli).[6]

The name Colosseum has long been believed to be derived from a
colossal statue of Nero nearby.[1] This statue was later remodeled by
Nero's successors into the likeness of Helios (Sol) or Apollo, the sun
god, by adding the appropriate solar crown. Nero's head was also
replaced several times with the heads of succeeding emperors. Despite
its pagan links, the statue remained standing well into the medieval
era and was credited with magical powers. It came to be seen as an
iconic symbol of the permanence of Rome.

In the 8th century, the Venerable Bede (c. 672–735) wrote a famous
epigram celebrating the symbolic significance of the statue: Quandiu
stabit coliseus, stabit et Roma; quando cadit coliseus, cadet et Roma;
quando cadet Roma, cadet et mundus ("as long as the Colossus stands,
so shall Rome; when the Colossus falls, Rome shall fall; when Rome
falls, so falls the world").[7] This is often mistranslated to refer
to the Colosseum rather than the Colossus (as in, for instance,
Byron's poem Childe Harold's Pilgrimage). However, at the time that
Bede wrote, the masculine noun coliseus was applied to the statue
rather than to what was still known as the Flavian amphitheatre.

The Colossus did eventually fall, probably being pulled down to reuse
its bronze. By the year 1000 the name "Colosseum" (a neuter noun) had
been coined to refer to the amphitheatre. The statue itself was
largely forgotten and only its base survives, situated between the
Colosseum and the nearby Temple of Venus and Roma.[8]

The name was further corrupted to Coliseum during the Middle Ages. In
Italy, the amphitheatre is still known as il Colosseo, and other
Romance languages have come to use similar forms such as le Colisée
(French), el Coliseo (Spanish) and o Coliseu (Portuguese).


[edit] History

[edit] Ancient

A map of central Rome during the Roman Empire, with the Colosseum at
the upper right cornerConstruction of the Colosseum began under the
rule of the Emperor Vespasian[1] in around 70–72. The site chosen was
a flat area on the floor of a low valley between the Caelian,
Esquiline and Palatine Hills, through which a canalised stream ran. By
the 2nd century BC the area was densely inhabited. It was devastated
by the Great Fire of Rome in AD 64, following which Nero seized much
of the area to add to his personal domain. He built the grandiose
Domus Aurea on the site, in front of which he created an artificial
lake surrounded by pavilions, gardens and porticoes. The existing Aqua
Claudia aqueduct was extended to supply water to the area and the
gigantic bronze Colossus of Nero was set up nearby at the entrance to
the Domus Aurea.[8]

The area was transformed under Vespasian and his successors. Although
the Colossus was preserved, much of the Domus Aurea was torn down. The
lake was filled in and the land reused as the location for the new
Flavian Amphitheatre. Gladiatorial schools and other support buildings
were constructed nearby within the former grounds of the Domus Aurea.
According to a reconstructed inscription found on the site, "the
emperor Vespasian ordered this new amphitheatre to be erected from his
general's share of the booty." This is thought to refer to the vast
quantity of treasure seized by the Romans following their victory in
the Great Jewish Revolt in 70. The Colosseum can be thus interpreted
as a great triumphal monument built in the Roman tradition of
celebrating great victories.[8] Vespasian's decision to build the
Colosseum on the site of Nero's lake can also be seen as a populist
gesture of returning to the people an area of the city which Nero had
appropriated for his own use. In contrast to many other amphitheatres,
which were located on the outskirts of a city, the Colosseum was
constructed in the city centre; in effect, placing it both literally
and symbolically at the heart of Rome.

The Colosseum had been completed up to the third story by the time of
Vespasian's death in 79. The top level was finished and the building
inaugurated by his son, Titus, in 80.[1] Dio Cassius recounts that
over 9,000 wild animals were killed during the inaugural games of the
amphitheatre. The building was remodelled further under Vespasian's
younger son, the newly-designated Emperor Domitian, who constructed
the hypogeum, a series of underground tunnels used to house animals
and slaves. He also added a gallery to the top of the Colosseum to
increase its seating capacity.

In 217, the Colosseum was badly damaged by a major fire (caused by
lightning, according to Dio Cassius[9]) which destroyed the wooden
upper levels of the amphitheatre's interior. It was not fully repaired
until about 240 and underwent further repairs in 250 or 252 and again
in 320. An inscription records the restoration of various parts of the
Colosseum under Theodosius II and Valentinian III (reigned 425–450),
possibly to repair damage caused by a major earthquake in 443; more
work followed in 484 and 508. The arena continued to be used for
contests well into the 6th century, with gladiatorial fights last
mentioned around 435. Animal hunts continued until at least 523.[8]


[edit] Medieval

Map of medieval Rome depicting the ColosseumThe Colosseum underwent
several radical changes of use during the medieval period. By the late
6th century a small church had been built into the structure of the
amphitheatre, though this apparently did not confer any particular
religious significance on the building as a whole. The arena was
converted into a cemetery. The numerous vaulted spaces in the arcades
under the seating were converted into housing and workshops, and are
recorded as still being rented out as late as the 12th century. Around
1200 the Frangipani family took over the Colosseum and fortified it,
apparently using it as a castle.

Severe damage was inflicted on the Colosseum by the great earthquake
in 1349, causing the outer south side to collapse. Much of the tumbled
stone was reused to build palaces, churches, hospitals and other
buildings elsewhere in Rome. A religious order moved into the northern
third of the Colosseum in the mid-14th century and continued to
inhabit it until as late as the early 19th century. The interior of
the amphitheatre was extensively stripped of stone, which was reused
elsewhere, or (in the case of the marble façade) was burned to make
quicklime.[8] The bronze clamps which held the stonework together were
pried or hacked out of the walls, leaving numerous pockmarks which
still scar the building today.


[edit] Modern

Interior of the Colosseum, Rome. Thomas Cole, 1832. Note the Stations
of the Cross around the arena and the extensive vegetation, both
removed later in the 19th century.During the 16th and 17th century,
Church officials sought a productive role for the vast derelict hulk
of the Colosseum. Pope Sixtus V (1585–1590) planned to turn the
building into a wool factory to provide employment for Rome's
prostitutes, though this proposal fell through with his premature
death.[10] In 1671 Cardinal Altieri authorized its use for bullfights;
a public outcry caused the idea to be hastily abandoned.

In 1749, Pope Benedict XIV endorsed as official Church policy the view
that the Colosseum was a sacred site where early Christians had been
martyred. He forbade the use of the Colosseum as a quarry and
consecrated the building to the Passion of Christ and installed
Stations of the Cross, declaring it sanctified by the blood of the
Christian martyrs who perished there (see Christians and the
Colosseum). Later popes initiated various stabilization and
restoration projects, removing the extensive vegetation which had
overgrown the structure and threatened to damage it further. The
façade was reinforced with triangular brick wedges in 1807 and 1827,
and the interior was repaired in 1831, 1846 and in the 1930s. The
arena substructure was partly excavated in 1810–1814 and 1874 and was
fully exposed under Mussolini in the 1930s.[8]


Between 1993 and 2000, parts of the outer wall were cleaned (left) to
repair the Colosseum from automobile exhaust damage (right)The
Colosseum is today one of Rome's most popular tourist attractions,
receiving millions of visitors annually. The effects of pollution and
general deterioration over time prompted a major restoration programme
carried out between 1993 and 2000, at a cost of 40 billion Italian
lire ($19.3m / €20.6m at 2000 prices). In recent years it has become a
symbol of the international campaign against capital punishment, which
was abolished in Italy in 1948. Several anti–death penalty
demonstrations took place in front of the Colosseum in 2000. Since
that time, as a gesture against the death penalty, the local
authorities of Rome change the color of the Colosseum's night time
illumination from white to gold whenever a person condemned to the
death penalty anywhere in the world gets their sentence commuted or is
released,[11] or if a jurisdiction abolishes the death penalty. Most
recently, the Colosseum was illuminated in gold when capital
punishment was abolished in the American state of New Jersey in
December 2007.[1]


Today, the Colosseum is a common background in the busy metropolis
that is modern Rome.Due to the ruined state of the interior, it is
impractical to use the Colosseum to host large events; only a few
hundred spectators can be accommodated in temporary seating. However,
much larger concerts have been held just outside, using the Colosseum
as a backdrop. Performers who have played at the Colosseum in recent
years have included Ray Charles (May 2002),[12] Paul McCartney (May
2003),[13] and Elton John (September 2005).[14]

On July 7, 2007, the Colosseum was voted as one of New Open World
Corporation's New Seven Wonders of the World.


[edit] Physical description

[edit] Exterior

The exterior of the Colosseum, showing the partially intact outer wall
(left) and the mostly intact inner wall (right)
Original façade of the Colosseum
Entrance LII of the Colosseum, with Roman numerals still visible
Cross-section from the Lexikon der gesamten Technik (1904)Unlike
earlier amphitheatres that were built into hillsides, the Colosseum is
an entirely free-standing structure. It is elliptical in plan and is
189 metres (615 ft / 640 Roman feet) long, and 156 metres (510 ft /
528 Roman feet) wide, with a base area of 6 acres (24,000 m2). The
height of the outer wall is 48 metres (157 ft / 165 Roman feet). The
perimeter originally measured 545 metres (1,788 ft / 1,835 Roman
feet). The central arena is an oval (287 ft) long and (180 ft) wide,
surrounded by a wall (15 ft) high, above which rose tiers of seating.

The outer wall is estimated to have required over 100,000 cubic meters
(131,000 cu yd) of travertine stone which were set without mortar held
together by 300 tons of iron clamps.[8] However, it has suffered
extensive damage over the centuries, with large segments having
collapsed following earthquakes. The north side of the perimeter wall
is still standing; the distinctive triangular brick wedges at each end
are modern additions, having been constructed in the early 19th
century to shore up the wall. The remainder of the present-day
exterior of the Colosseum is in fact the original interior wall.

The surviving part of the outer wall's monumental façade comprises
three stories of superimposed arcades surmounted by a podium on which
stands a tall attic, both of which are pierced by windows interspersed
at regular intervals. The arcades are framed by half-columns of the
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian orders, while the attic is decorated with
Corinthian pilasters.[15] Each of the arches in the second- and third-
floor arcades framed statues, probably honoring divinities and other
figures from Classical mythology.

Two hundred and forty mast corbels were positioned around the top of
the attic. They originally supported a retractable awning, known as
the velarium, that kept the sun and rain off spectators. This
consisted of a canvas-covered, net-like structure made of ropes, with
a hole in the center.[1] It covered two-thirds of the arena, and
sloped down towards the center to catch the wind and provide a breeze
for the audience. Sailors, specially enlisted from the Roman naval
headquarters at Misenum and housed in the nearby Castra Misenatium,
were used to work the velarium.[16]

The Colosseum's huge crowd capacity made it essential that the venue
could be filled or evacuated quickly. Its architects adopted solutions
very similar to those used in modern stadiums to deal with the same
problem. The amphitheatre was ringed by eighty entrances at ground
level, 76 of which were used by ordinary spectators.[1] Each entrance
and exit was numbered, as was each staircase. The northern main
entrance was reserved for the Roman Emperor and his aides, whilst the
other three axial entrances were most likely used by the elite. All
four axial entrances were richly decorated with painted stucco
reliefs, of which fragments survive. Many of the original outer
entrances have disappeared with the collapse of the perimeter wall,
but entrances XXIII (23) to LIV (54) still survive.[8]

Spectators were given tickets in the form of numbered pottery shards,
which directed them to the appropriate section and row. They accessed
their seats via vomitoria (singular vomitorium), passageways that
opened into a tier of seats from below or behind. These quickly
dispersed people into their seats and, upon conclusion of the event or
in an emergency evacuation, could permit their exit within only a few
minutes. The name vomitoria derived from the Latin word for a rapid
discharge, from which English derives the word vomit.


[edit] Interior seating

Side view of Colosseum seatingAccording to the Codex-Calendar of 354,
the Colosseum could accommodate 87,000 people, although modern
estimates put the figure at around 50,000. They were seated in a
tiered arrangement that reflected the rigidly stratified nature of
Roman society. Special boxes were provided at the north and south ends
respectively for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins, providing the
best views of the arena. Flanking them at the same level was a broad
platform or podium for the senatorial class, who were allowed to bring
their own chairs. The names of some 5th century senators can still be
seen carved into the stonework, presumably reserving areas for their
use.

The tier above the senators, known as the maenianum primum, was
occupied by the non-senatorial noble class or knights (equites). The
next level up, the maenianum secundum, was originally reserved for
ordinary Roman citizens (plebians) and was divided into two sections.
The lower part (the immum) was for wealthy citizens, while the upper
part (the summum) was for poor citizens. Specific sectors were
provided for other social groups: for instance, boys with their
tutors, soldiers on leave, foreign dignitaries, scribes, heralds,
priests and so on. Stone (and later marble) seating was provided for
the citizens and nobles, who presumably would have brought their own
cushions with them. Inscriptions identified the areas reserved for
specific groups.

Another level, the maenianum secundum in legneis, was added at the
very top of the building during the reign of Domitian. This comprised
a gallery for the common poor, slaves and women. It would have been
either standing room only, or would have had very steep wooden
benches. Some groups were banned altogether from the Colosseum,
notably gravediggers, actors and former gladiators.[8]

Each tier was divided into sections (maeniana) by curved passages and
low walls (praecinctiones or baltei), and were subdivided into cunei,
or wedges, by the steps and aisles from the vomitoria. Each row
(gradus) of seats was numbered, permitting each individual seat to be
exactly designated by its gradus, cuneus, and number.[17]


[edit] Arena and hypogeum

The Colosseum arena, showing the hypogeum. The wooden walkway is a
modern structure.
Detail of the hypogeumThe arena itself was 83 metres by 48 metres (272
ft by 157 ft / 280 by 163 Roman feet).[8] It comprised a wooden floor
covered by sand (the Latin word for sand is harena or arena), covering
an elaborate underground structure called the hypogeum (literally
meaning "underground"). Little now remains of the original arena
floor, but the hypogeum is still clearly visible. It consisted of a
two-level subterranean network of tunnels and cages beneath the arena
where gladiators and animals were held before contests began. Eighty
vertical shafts provided instant access to the arena for caged animals
and scenery pieces concealed underneath; larger hinged platforms,
called hegmata, provided access for elephants and the like. It was
restructured on numerous occasions; at least twelve different phases
of construction can be seen.[8]

The hypogeum was connected by underground tunnels to a number of
points outside the Colosseum. Animals and performers were brought
through the tunnel from nearby stables, with the gladiators' barracks
at the Ludus Magnus to the east also being connected by tunnels.
Separate tunnels were provided for the Emperor and the Vestal Virgins
to permit them to enter and exit the Colosseum without needing to pass
through the crowds.[8]

Substantial quantities of machinery also existed in the hypogeum.
Elevators and pulleys raised and lowered scenery and props, as well as
lifting caged animals to the surface for release. There is evidence
for the existence of major hydraulic mechanisms[8] and according to
ancient accounts, it was possible to flood the arena rapidly,
presumably via a connection to a nearby aqueduct.


[edit] Supporting buildings

The Colosseum - a view from Colle OppioThe Colosseum and its
activities supported a substantial industry in the area. In addition
to the amphitheatre itself, many other buildings nearby were linked to
the games. Immediately to the east is the remains of the Ludus Magnus,
a training school for gladiators. This was connected to the Colosseum
by an underground passage, to allow easy access for the gladiators.
The Ludus Magnus had its own miniature training arena, which was
itself a popular attraction for Roman spectators. Other training
schools were in the same area, including the Ludus Matutinus (Morning
School), where fighters of animals were trained, plus the Dacian and
Gallic Schools.

Also nearby were the Armamentarium, comprising an armory to store
weapons; the Summum Choragium, where machinery was stored; the
Sanitarium, which had facilities to treat wounded gladiators; and the
Spoliarium, where bodies of dead gladiators were stripped of their
armor and disposed of.

Around the perimeter of the Colosseum, at a distance of 18 m (59 ft)
from the perimeter, was a series of tall stone posts, with five
remaining on the eastern side. Various explanations have been advanced
for their presence; they may have been a religious boundary, or an
outer boundary for ticket checks, or an anchor for the velarium or
awning.[8]

Right next to the Colosseum is also the Arch of Constantine.


[edit] Use

Pollice Verso ("Thumbs Down") by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1872The Colosseum
was used to host gladiatorial shows as well as a variety of other
events. The shows, called munera, were always given by individuals
rather than the state. They had a strong religious element but were
also demonstration of power and family prestige, and were immensely
popular with the population. Another popular type of show was the
animal hunt, or venatio. This utilised a great variety of wild beasts,
mainly imported from Africa, and included creatures such as
rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, elephants, giraffes, lions, panthers,
leopards, tigers, alligators, crocodiles and ostriches. Battles and
hunts were often staged amid elaborate sets with movable trees and
buildings. Such events were occasionally on a huge scale; Trajan is
said to have celebrated his victories in Dacia in 107 with contests
involving 11,000 animals and 10,000 gladiators over the course of 123
days.

During the early days of the Colosseum, ancient writers recorded that
the building was used for naumachiae (more properly known as navalia
proelia) or simulated sea battles. Accounts of the inaugural games
held by Titus in AD 80 describe it being filled with water for a
display of specially trained swimming horses and bulls. There is also
an account of a re-enactment of a famous sea battle between the
Corcyrean (Corfiot) Greeks and the Corinthians. This has been the
subject of some debate among historians; although providing the water
would not have been a problem, it is unclear how the arena could have
been waterproofed, nor would there have been enough space in the arena
for the warships to move around. It has been suggested that the
reports either have the location wrong, or that the Colosseum
originally featured a wide floodable channel down its central axis
(which would later have been replaced by the hypogeum).[8]

Sylvae or recreations of natural scenes were also held in the arena.
Painters, technicians and architects would construct a simulation of a
forest with real trees and bushes planted in the arena's floor.
Animals would be introduced to populate the scene for the delight of
the crowd. Such scenes might be used simply to display a natural
environment for the urban population, or could otherwise be used as
the backdrop for hunts or dramas depicting episodes from mythology.
They were also occasionally used for executions in which the hero of
the story — played by a condemned person — was killed in one of
various gruesome but mythologically authentic ways, such as being
mauled by beasts or burned to death.


[edit] Today
The Colosseum today is now a major tourist attraction in Rome with
thousands of tourists each year paying to view the interior arena,
though entrance for EU citizens is partially subsidised, and under-18
and over-65 EU citizens' entrances are free.[18] There is now a museum
dedicated to Eros located in the upper floor of the outer wall of the
building. Part of the arena floor has been re-floored.

The Colosseum is also the site of Roman Catholic ceremonies in the
20th and 21st centuries. For instance, Pope Benedict XVI performs the
Stations of the Cross called the Scriptural Way of the Cross (which
calls for more meditation) at the Colosseum[19][20] on Good Fridays.
[2]


[edit] Christians and the Colosseum

The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1883).In the
Middle Ages, the Colosseum was clearly not regarded as a sacred site.
Its use as a fortress and then a quarry demonstrates how little
spiritual importance was attached to it, at a time when sites
associated with martyrs were highly venerated. It was not included in
the itineraries compiled for the use of pilgrims nor in works such as
the 12th century Mirabilia Urbis Romae ("Marvels of the City of
Rome"), which claims the Circus Flaminius — but not the Colosseum — as
the site of martyrdoms. Part of the structure was inhabited by a
Christian order, but apparently not for any particular religious
reason.


Martyrdom of Saint Ignatius of Antioch, often said to have taken place
in the Colosseum. Note how the saint is framed by a stylized depiction
of the Colosseum.It appears to have been only in the 16th and 17th
centuries that the Colosseum came to be regarded as a Christian site.
Pope Pius V (1566-1572) is said to have recommended that pilgrims
gather sand from the arena of the Colosseum to serve as a relic, on
the grounds that it was impregnated with the blood of martyrs. This
seems to have been a minority view until it was popularised nearly a
century later by Fioravante Martinelli, who listed the Colosseum at
the head of a list of places sacred to the martyrs in his 1653 book
Roma ex ethnica sacra.

Martinelli's book evidently had an effect on public opinion; in
response to Cardinal Altieri's proposal some years later to turn the
Colosseum into a bullring, Carlo Tomassi published a pamphlet in
protest against what he regarded as an act of desecration. The ensuing
controversy persuaded Pope Clement X to close the Colosseum's external
arcades and declare it a sanctuary, though quarrying continued for
some time to come.

At the instance of St. Leonard of Port Maurice, Pope Benedict XIV
(1740-1758) forbade the quarrying of the Colosseum and erected
Stations of the Cross around the arena, which remained until February
1874. St. Benedict Joseph Labre spent the later years of his life
within the walls of the Colosseum, living on alms, prior to his death
in 1783. Several 19th century popes funded repair and restoration work
on the Colosseum, and it still retains a Christian connection today.
Crosses stand in several points around the arena and every Good Friday
the Pope leads a Via Crucis procession to the amphitheatre.


[edit] Flora

Plants on the inner walls of the ColosseumThe Colosseum has a wide and
well-documented history of flora ever since Domenico Panaroli made the
first catalogue of its plants in 1643. Since then, 684 species have
been identified there. The peak was in 1855 (420 species). Attempts
were made in 1871 to eradicate the vegetation, due to concerns over
the damage that was being caused to the masonry, but much of it has
returned.[8] 242 species have been counted today and of the species
first identified by Panaroli, 200 remain.

The variation of plants can be explained by the change of climate in
Rome through the centuries. Additionally, bird migration, flower
blooming, and the growth of Rome that caused the Colosseum to become
embedded within the modern city centre rather than on the outskirts of
the ancient city, as well as deliberate transport of species, are also
contributing causes. One other romantic reason often given is their
seeds being unwittingly transported on the animals brought there from
all corners of the empire.


[edit] Popular culture

The Colosseum as digitally recreated for GladiatorThe iconic status of
the Colosseum has led it to be featured in numerous films and other
items of popular culture:

Cole Porter's song "You're the Top" from the musical Anything Goes
(1934) includes the line "You're the Top, You're the Colosseum"
In the 1953 film Roman Holiday, the Colosseum famously serves as the
backdrop for several scenes.
In the 1954 film Demetrius and the Gladiators, the Emperor Caligula
anachronistically sentences the Christian Demetrius to fight in the
Colosseum.
The conclusion of the 1957 film 20 Million Miles to Earth takes place
at the Colosseum.
In the 1972 film Way of the Dragon, Bruce Lee fought Chuck Norris in
the Colosseum.
In Ridley Scott's 2000 film Gladiator, the Colosseum was re-created
via computer-generated imagery (CGI) to "restore" it to the glory of
its heyday in the 2nd century. The depiction of the building itself is
generally accurate and it gives a good impression of what the
underground hypogeum would have been like.
In the 2008 film Jumper, the Colosseum was used as the location for
one of the battles between the jumpers and those trying to kill them.
In the 2003 science fiction film The Core, the Colosseum along with
the rest of Rome is destroyed by a huge lightning superstorm.
The Colosseum's fame as an entertainment venue has also led the name
to be re-used for modern entertainment facilities, particularly in the
United States, where theatres, music halls and large buildings used
for sport or exhibitions have commonly been called Colosseums or
Coliseums.[21]

The optical disc authoring software program Nero Burning ROM uses an
image of the Colosseum on fire as one of its main icons, even though
Emperor Nero's Great Fire of Rome (which the program's name and icon
refer to) occurred in 64 AD, before the Colosseum was built.


[edit] Colosseum Panorama

A panoramic view of the interior of the Colosseum.

[edit] References

The Colosseum from Colle Oppio gardens^ a b c d e f Roth, Leland M.
(1993). Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History and Meaning,
First, Boulder, CO: Westview Press. ISBN 0-06-430158-3.
^ a b "Frommer's Events - Event Guide: Good Friday Procession in Rome
(Palatine Hill, Italy)". Frommer's. Retrieved on 2008-04-08.
^ Willy Logan. "The Flavian Dynasty". Retrieved on 2007-09-25.
^ J. C. Edmondson; Steve Mason, J. B. Rives (2005). Flavius Josephus
and Flavian Rome. Oxford University Press, 114.
^ "The Colosseum - History 1". Retrieved on 2008-01-26.
^ Mairui, Amedeo. Studi e ricerche sull'Anfiteatro Flavio Puteolano.
Napoli : G. Macchiaroli, 1955. (OCLC 2078742)
^ "The Coliseum". The Catholic Encyclopedia. New Advent. Retrieved on
August 2, 2006.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Claridge, Amanda (1998). Rome: An
Oxford Archaeological Guide, First, Oxford, UK: Oxford University
Press, 1998, pp. 276–282. ISBN 0-19-288003-9.
^ Cass. Dio lxxviii.25
^ "Rome." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006.
^ Young, Gayle (2000-02-24). "On Italy's passionate opposition to
death penalty", CNN.com, CNN. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.
^ Colosseum stages peace concert, BBC News Online, 12 May 2002.
^ McCartney rocks the Colosseum, BBC News Online, 12 May 2003
^ Sir Elton's free gig thrills Rome, BBC News Online, 4 September
2005
^ Ian Archibald Richmond, Donald Emrys Strong, Janet DeLaine.
"Colosseum", The Oxford Companion to Classical Civilization. Ed. Simon
Hornblower and Antony Spawforth. Oxford University Press, 1998
^ Downey, Charles T. (February 9, 2005). "The Colosseum Was a
Skydome?". Retrieved on August 2, 2006.
^ Samuel Ball Platner (as completed and revised by Thomas Ashby), A
Topographical Dictionary of Ancient Rome. Oxford University Press,
1929
^ The Colosseum.net : The resourceful site on the Colosseum
^ Joseph M Champlin, The Stations of the Cross With Pope John Paul II
Liguori Publications, 1994, ISBN 0892436794
^ Vatican Description of the Stations of the Cross at the Colosseum:
http://www.pcf.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/speeches/documents/hf_jp-ii_spe_20000421_via-crucis_en.html
^ "Coliseum". Pocket Fowler's Modern English Usage. Ed. Robert Allen.
Oxford University Press, 1999
Coarelli, Filippo (1989). Guida Archeologica di Roma. Milano: Arnoldo
Mondadori Editore. ISBN 88-04-11896-2.
Hopkins, Keith; Beard, Mary (2005). The Colosseum. Cambridge, MA:
Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-01895-8.

[edit] External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
ColosseumArtLex Art Dictionary — a cross-section view of the
colosseum
Colosseum Information about the Colosseum and photo gallery on
worldstadia.com
Colosseum's Flora
High quality interactive virtual tour of the colosseum
LacusCurtius entry on the Colosseum
Photos and podguides of Rome Free images and audio guides of the
Colosseum.
Photos Colosseum (Ipix panorama)
The Roman Colosseum, Rome virtual reality movies and free audio guide
for iPod or MP3
Views of the Flavian Amphitheatre (Coliseum)
[hide]v • d • eLandmarks of Rome

Basilicas and other religious sites Catacombs of Rome · San Carlo alle
Quattro Fontane · Basilica di San Clemente · Basilica di Santa Maria
Maggiore · Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls · Basilica of St.
John Lateran · Chiesa del Gesù · Ghetto · Santa Croce in Gerusalemme ·
Santa Maria degli Angeli · Santa Maria in Aracoeli · Santa Maria in
Cosmedin · Santa Maria in Trastevere · Santa Prassede · Santa Sabina ·
St. Peter's Basilica · Sant'Ivo alla Sapienza · Sistine Chapel

Gardens, parks and natural attractions Tiber Island · Villa Ada ·
Villa Borghese · Villa Doria Pamphili · Villa Medici

Ancient temples, monuments and sporting venues Ara Pacis · Castel
Sant'Angelo · Circus Maximus · Colosseum · Column of Marcus Aurelius ·
Largo di Torre Argentina · Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II · Obelisks
· Palazzo Barberini · Pantheon · Pyramid of Cestius · Roman Forum ·
Temple of Hercules Victor · Temple of Jupiter (Capitoline Hill) ·
Theatre of Marcellus · Temple of Portunus · Trajan's Column · Trajan's
Market · Stadio Olimpico · Mausoleum of Augustus

Aqueducts, squares, fountains, towers and walls Trevi Fountain · Baths
of Caracalla · Aurelian Walls · Servian Wall · Palazzo Farnese ·
Piazza Navona · Spanish Steps · Torre delle Milizie

Sculptures Apollo Belvedere · Augustus of Prima Porta · La Bocca
della Verità · Laocoön and his Sons

Seven Hills Aventine Hill · Caelian Hill · Capitoline Hill · Esquiline
Hill · Palatine Hill · Quirinal Hill · Viminal Hill


Coordinates: 41°53′24.61″N, 12°29′32.17″E

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Ancient Olympic Games
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Ruins of the training grounds at OlympiaThe Ancient Olympic Games,
originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: Ολυμπιακοί
Αγώνες; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held
between various city-states of Ancient Greece. They began in 776 BC in
Olympia, Greece, and were celebrated until 393 AD[1] The prizes were
olive wreaths, palm branches and woollen ribbons.

Contents [hide]
1 Legendary origin
2 History
3 Olympic truce
4 Events
5 Famous athletes
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 External links



Legendary origin
The origins of the Ancient Olympic Games are unknown, but several
legends and myths have survived. One of these involved Pelops, king of
Olympia and eponymous hero of the Peloponnesus, to whom offerings were
made during the games. The Christian Clement of Alexandria asserted,
"[The] Olympian games are nothing else than the funeral sacrifices of
Pelops."[2] That myth tells of how Pelops' overcame the King and won
the hand of his daughter Hippodamia with the help of Poseidon, his old
lover, a myth linked to the later fall of the house of Atreus and the
sufferings of Oedipus.

A myth tells of the hero Hercules, or Herakles, who won a race at
Olympia and then decreed that the race should be re-enacted every four
years, while another claims that Zeus initiated the festival after his
defeat of the Titan Cronus. Yet another tells of King Iphitos of Elis,
who consulted the Pythia Oracle at Delphi – to try and save his people
from war in the 9th century BC. The prophetess advised him to organize
games in honour of the gods. The Spartan adversary of Iphitos then
decided to stop fighting during these games, which were called
Olympic, after the sanctuary of Olympia where they were held. Had they
been named after Mount Olympus, the mountain on which the Greek gods
were said to live, they would have been called Olympian games rather
than Olympic. The favorite story is that Heracles celebrated cleaning
the Augean Stables by building Olympia with help from Athena.

Whatever their origin, the games were held to be one of the two
central rituals in Ancient Greece, the other being the Eleusinian
Mysteries.[3]


History
The Games first started in Olympia, Greece, in a sanctuary site for
the Greek gods near the towns of Elis and Pisa (both in Elis on the
peninsula of Peloponnesos). The Sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia housed a
12 metre high statue in ivory and gold of Zeus, the father of the
Greek gods, sculpted by Phidias. This statue was one of the ancient
Seven Wonders of the World.

The Olympic Games were held in four year intervals, and later the
Greek method of counting the years even referred to these Games, using
the term Olympiad for the period between two Games. The historian
Ephorus who lived in the 4th century BC is believed to have invented
the use of Olympiads to count years, much as we today use AD and BC.
Previously every Greek state used its own dating system, something
that continued for local events, which led to confusion when trying to
determine dates. "Diodorus states that there was a solar eclipse in
the third year of the 113th Olympiad, which must be the eclipse of 316
BC. This gives us a date of (mid-summer) 786 BC for the first year of
the first Olympiad".[4] Nevertheless, there is disagreement among
scholars whether the games truly began at this time or not.[5]


The "Exedra" reserved for the judges at Olympia on the north
embankment of the stadiumThe only competition held then was, according
to the Greek traveller Pausanias, the stadion race, a race over about
190 metres, measured after the feet of Hercules. The word stadium is
derived from this foot race.

The early Olympics were also held to be the place where the Greek
tradition of athletic nudity was first introduced in 720 BC, either by
the Spartans or by the Megarian Orsippus.

Several groups fought over control of the sanctuary, and hence the
Games, for prestige and political advantage. Pausanias writes that in
668 BC, Pheidon of Argos was commissioned by the town of Pisa to
capture the sanctuary from the town of Elis, which he did and then
personally controlled the Games for that year. The next year Elis
regained control.

The Athenian writer Xenophon in 364 BC gives a contemporary record of
an Elean attack during the Pentathlon final of the Games themselves,
as the Pisans were again in control. The Eleans pushed the defenders
almost to the altar before retreating due to missiles being thrown at
them from the porticos. During that night the defending Arcadians
constructed defensive palisades, and the next morning on seeing the
strength of the defence the Eleans retreated.

Related to the Elis/Pisa conflict, is the Heraea Games, the first
sanctioned competition for women, held in Olympic Stadium. It
originally consisted of foot races only, as did the men's competition.
Some texts, including Pausanias's Description of Greece, c. AD 175,
state that Hippodameia gathered a group known as the "Sixteen Women"
and made them administrators of the Heraea Games, out of gratitude for
her marriage to Pelops. Other texts indicate that the "Sixteen Women"
were peace-makers from Pisa and Elis and, because of their political
competence, became administrators of the Heraea Games.

The Olympic Games were part of the Panhellenic Games, four separate
games held at two- or four-year intervals but arranged so that there
was at least one set of games every year. The Olympic Games were more
important and more prestigious than the Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian
Games.

Finally, the Olympic Games were suppressed by either Theodosius I in
AD 393 or his grandson Theodosius II in AD 435,[6] as part of the
campaign to impose Christianity as a state religion. The site of
Olympia remained until an earthquake destroyed it in the 6th century
AD.


Olympic truce
During the Olympic Games a truce or ekecheiria was observed. Three
runners known as spondophoroi were sent from Elis to the various
participant cities at each set of games to announce the beginning of
the truce. During this period armies were forbidden from entering
Olympia, wars were suspended and legal disputes and the use of the
death penalty were forbidden. The truce was primarily designed to
allow athletes and visitors to travel safely to the games, and was for
the most part observed, although Thucydides wrote of a situation where
the Spartans were forbidden from attending the games and fined 200,000
drachmas for assaulting the city of Lepreum during the period of the
ekechiria, claiming that the truce had not yet taken hold. [7]


Events

Athletes running the hoplitodromosUnlike the Modern Olympic Games,
only free men who spoke Greek were allowed to participate in the
Ancient Games. They were to some extent "international", though, in
the sense that they included athletes from the various Greek city-
states. Additionally, participants eventually came from Greek colonies
as well, extending the range of the games to far shores of the
Mediterranean and of the Black Sea.

In order to be in the games one had to qualify and the athlete had to
have one's name written down in the lists. It seems that only young
people were allowed to participate, as the Greek writer Plutarch
relates that one young man was rejected for seeming too mature, and
only after his lover interceded with the king of Sparta, who
presumably vouched for his youth, was he permitted to participate.
Before being able to participate, every participant had to take an
oath in front of the statue of Zeus saying that he had been in
training for 10 months.

The Olympic games originally contained one event: the stadion (or
"stade") race, a short sprint measuring between 180 and 240 metres, or
the length of the stadium. The actual length of the race is unknown,
since tracks found at archeological sites, as well as literary
evidence, provide conflicting answers. Runners had to pass five stakes
that divided the lanes: one stake at the start, another at the finish,
and three stakes in-between.


A section of the stone starting line at Olympia, which has a groove
for each footThe diaulos, or 2-stade race, was introduced in 724 BC,
during the 14th Olympic games. The race was a single lap of the
stadium, approximately 400 metres, and scholars debate whether or not
the runners had individual "turning" posts for the return leg of the
race, or whether all the runners approached a common post, turned, and
then raced back to the starting line.

A third foot race, the dolichos, was introduced in 720 BC. Separate
accounts of the race present conflicting evidence as to the actual
length of the dolichos. However, the average stated length of the race
was approximately 18-24 laps, or about three miles (5 km). The event
was run similarly to modern marathons- the runners would begin and end
their event in the stadium proper, but the race course would wind its
way through the Olympic grounds. The course would often flank
important shrines and statues in the sanctuary, passing by the Nike
statue by the temple of Zeus before returning to the stadium.

The last running event added to the Olympic program was the
hoplitodromos, or "Hoplite race," introduced in 520 BC and
traditionally run as the last race of the day. The runners would run
either a single or double diaulos (approximately 400 or 800 yards) in
full or partial armour, carrying a shield and additionally equipped
either with greaves or a helmet.[8][9] As the armour weighed between
50 and 60 lb (27 kg), the hoplitodromos emulated the speed and stamina
needed for warfare. Due to the weight of the armour, it was easy for
runners to drop their shields or trip over fallen competitors. In a
vase painting depicting the event, some runners are shown leaping over
fallen shields. The course they used for these runs were made out of
clay with sand over the clay.

Over the years, more events were added: boxing (pygme/pygmachia),
wrestling (pale), pankration (regulated full-contact fighting, similar
to today's mixed martial arts), chariot racing, several other running
events (the diaulos, hippios, dolichos, and hoplitodromos), as well as
a pentathlon, consisting of wrestling, stadion, long jump, javelin
throw and discus throw (the latter three were not separate events).

Boxing became increasingly brutal over the centuries. Initially soft
leather covered their fingers but eventually hard leather weighted
with metal was sometimes used.[10]

In the chariot racing event, it was not the rider but the owner of the
chariot and team who was considered to be the competitor, so one man
could win more than one of the top spots. The addition of events meant
the festival grew from 1 day to 5 days, 3 of which were used for
competition. The other two days were dedicated to religious rituals.
On the final day, there was a banquet for all of the participants,
consisting of 100 oxen that had been sacrificed to Zeus on the first
day.

The winner of an Olympic event was awarded an olive branch, and was
often received with much honour throughout Greece and especially in
his home town, where he was often granted large sums of money (in
Athens, 500 drachma, a small fortune). (See Milo of Croton.) Sculptors
would create statues of Olympic victors[11] and poets would sing odes
in their praise for money.

Archaeologists believe that wars were halted between the city-states
of Greece so that the athletes as well as the spectators of the
Olympics could get there safely. However, some archaeologists argue
that the wars were not halted, but that the athletes who were in the
army were allowed to leave and participate in the Olympics.

Participation in the games was limited to male athletes; the only way
women were allowed to take part was to enter horses in the equestrian
events. In 396 BC and again in 392 BC, the horses of a Spartan
princess named Cynisca won her the four-horse race. It is thought that
single women (not betrothed or married) were allowed to watch the
races. Also priestesses in the temple of Zeus who lit the candles were
permitted.

The athletes usually competed naked, not only as the weather was
appropriate but also as the festival was meant to celebrate, in part,
the achievements of the human body. Olive oil was occasionally used by
the competitors, not only to keep skin smooth but also to provide an
appealing look for the participants. Competitors may have worn a
kynodesme to restrain the penis.


Famous athletes

Bases of Zanes, paid for by fines from those who cheated at the
Gamesfrom Athens:
Aurelios Zopyros (Junior boxing)
from Sparta:
Acanthus of Sparta (Running: diaulos)
Chionis of Sparta (Running: stadium, diaulos. Long and Triple Jump)
Cynisca of Sparta (first woman to be listed as an Olympic victor)
from Rhodes:
Diagoras of Rhodes (Boxing 79th Olympiad, 464 BC) and his sons
Akusilaos and Damagetos (Boxing and Pankration)
Leonidas of Rhodes (Running: stadium, diaulos and hoplitodromos)
from Croton:
Astylos of Croton (Running: stadium, diaulos and hoplitodromos)
Milo of Croton (wrestling)
Timasitheos of Croton (wrestling)
from other cities:
Koroibos of Elis (Stadion)
Orsippus of Megara (Runner: diaulos)
Theagenes of Thasos (Pankration)
non-Greek:
Tiberius (steerer of a four-horse chariot)[12]
Nero (steerer of a ten-horse chariot)
Varastades, Prince and future King of Armenia, (last known Ancient
Olympic victor (boxing) during the 291st Olympic Games in the fourth
century. [13]

See also
Heraea Games (Ancient Women's Competition)
Olympic Games
Isthmian Games
Olympia Archaeological Museum

Notes
^ "Ancient Olympic Games". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia 2006.
Microsoft Corporation (1997-20-06). Retrieved on 2006-12-27.
^ St. Clement Of Alexandria. "Chapter 2. The Absurdity and Impiety of
the Heathen Mysteries and Fables About the Birth and Death of Their
Gods.". Exhortation to the Heathen. New Advent. Retrieved on
2007-04-18.
^ "The Ancient Olympic Games". HickokSports (2005-02-04). Retrieved on
2007-05-13.
^ "The Athletics of the Ancient Olympics: A Summary and Research Tool"
by Kotynski, p.3 (Quote used with permission). For the calculation of
the date, see Kotynski footnote 6.
^ See, for example, Alfred Mallwitz's article "Cult and Competition
Locations at Olympia" p.101 in which he argues that the games may not
have started until about 704 BC. Hugh Lee, on the other hand, in his
article "The 'First' Olympic Games of 776 B.C." p.112, follows an
ancient source that claims that there were twenty-seven Olympiads
before the first one was recorded in 776. There are no records of the
Olympic victors extant from earlier than the 5th century BC.
^ Kotynski, p.3. For more information about the question of this date,
see Kotynski.
^ Thucydides, The Peloponnesian War. London, J. M. Dent; New York, E.
P. Dutton (1910)
^ Gilman, David (1993). Athletics and Mathematics in Archaic Corinth:
The Origins of the Greek Stadion. ISBN 0871692066.
^ Perrottet, Tony. "Let the Games Begin". Smithsonian Magazine.
^ "Boxing gets Brutal", Encarta (2006-03-23). .
^ Ageladas
^ Tiberius, AD 1 or earlier - cf. Ehrenberg & Jones, Documents
Illustrating the Reigns of Augustus and Tiberius [Oxford 1955] p. 73
(n.78)
^ 369 according to Encyclopedia of Ancient Greece by Nigel Wilson,
2006, Routledge (UK) or 385 according to Classical Weekly by Classical
Association of the Atlantic States

References
History of the Games
Kotynski, Edward J. "The Athletics of the Ancient Olympics: A Summary
and Research Tool". 2006.
Mallowitz, Alfred. "Cult and Competition Locations at Olympia".
Raschke 79-109.
Miller, Stephen. “The Date of Olympic Festivals”. Mitteilungen: Des
Deutschen Archäologischen Instituts, Athenische Abteilung. Vol. 90
(1975): 215-237.
Raschke, Wendy J., ed. The Archaeology of the Olympics: the Olympics
and Other Festivals in Antiquity. Madison, Wisconsin: Wisconsin
University Press, 1987.
Tufts - "Women and the Games."
Ancient Olympics. Research by K.U.Leuven and Peking University

External links
The Ancient Olympic Games Virtual Museum (requires registration)
Ancient Olympics (General and detailed information)
The Ancient Olympics (A special exhibit)
The Real Story of the Ancient Olympic Games
Heraea Games
The Origin of the Olympics
The Original Olympic Movement Since 776 B.C.
List of Macedonian Olympic winners (in Greek)
Webquest The ancient and modern Olympic Games
[hide]v • d • eAncient Greece topics

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Privacy policy About Wikipedia Disclaimers
mrliu918
2008-09-18 10:36:01 UTC
Permalink
Quotation from boxing record:

The Roman gladiator was an important part of Western military
tradition of the past. This is how the West train their boxers and
soldiers in the past.


Answer to public concern about the size of special force and the army
divison responsible for killing more than 30000 Iraqi Republican
guards within days.

Answer to public concern whether the special force in Gulf War is
a oneman show and only true in propaganda.

In the past 15 years, I have been receiving phone calls and other
means of harassment particularly from Middle East Region concerning
whether the special force unit in Gulf War is a one man show and
only true in propaganda. The stalkers and spy oftens concern about
the number of special force units capable of doing the job and the
identity of those served in the special force units. They also
concern about members of special force involving in killing the tigers
and
other predators. They are interested in Information about the
technology of US bullet proof vest used by the special force.

My answer regarding this questions in past 15 years is consistent.

They should stop harassing me and contact the US army directly.
The Roman gladiator was an important part of Western military
tradition of the past.
This is how the West train their boxers and soldiers in the past.


Sincerely


Yu Fung Liu



The most famous world boxing Championships (拳击史上知名度最高的重量级拳击冠军阿里
(muhammad ali)和泰森(Mike tyson)及其公开赛相关统计数据)

USA:Ali, Tyson,

阿里(muhammad ali) 公开赛相关统计数
据 国籍(民族)
61 - won: 56 Lost 5 KOs: 37 (56胜 - 5负 -0和 NC 37次击晕对手
KOs) 美国黑人
Born in Jan 17, 1942 (1942年1月17号出生)

The first man to win the heavyweight title three times
Defeated three-time European champion Zbigniew Pietrzykowski and won
one Olympic gold in 1960
拳击史上第一位三届重量级拳击冠军
1960在奥运会上轻易打败欧裔三届拳击冠军并夺取轻重量级拳击奥运金牌
28岁前公开赛中未输一场


泰森(Mike Tyson) 公开赛相关统计数
据 国籍(民族)

won 50 Lost 6 Knockouts 44 (50胜-6负-0和 NC 44次击晕对手
KOs) 美国黑人
Born in June 30, 1966 (1966年6月30号出生)

The youngest champion ever and won the heavyweight title three
times.
拳击史上最年轻的重量级冠军
三届重量级拳击冠军
28岁前公开赛中仅输一场


以年轻六岁的优势和人已中年、快将退休的重量级拳击冠军阿里(muhammad ali)大战十五回合仍落败的Jimmy Young
Jimmy Young 公开赛相关统计数
据 国籍(民族)

Won 34 - Lost 19 - 2 NC 11 KOs (34胜-19负-2和 NC 11次击晕对手
KOs) 美国
Born in November 16, 1948 - February 20, 2005 (1948年11月
16号出生)
李某认为这场比赛有打假拳的嫌疑。



与重量级拳击冠军泰森(Mike tyson)同龄同级的Mark young仅一个回合就战败
Mark Young 公开赛相关统计数
据 国籍(民族)

Won 14 - Lost 37 - 1 NC 9KOs (14胜-37负-1和 NC 9次击晕对手
KOs) 美国
Born in 1963-12-30 (1963年12月30号出生)



It took only one round for Mike Tyson to knock out member of Young's
family while Ali tooks 15 rounds with Jimmy Young. Mike Tyson no doubt
is the best African American boxer although his polititcal association
and achievement is never as great as Muhammad Ali.


Current world boxing Championships (现届的各级别世界冠军和公开赛相关统计数据)

Class 1 (级别) 重量级 公开赛相关统计数据 国籍(民族)
(胜-负-和 NC 击晕对手次数
KOs)
Heavyweight(+200lb) 23-0-1-0 NC 17 KOs
Uzbekistan
重量级

Cruiserweight(200lb) 33-3-0-0 NC - 22 KOs
France
次重量级 50-6-0-0 NC - 23KOs
USA
27-3-1-0 NC -
18KOs Germany

Light Heavyweight(175lb) 32-1-0-0 NC - 13KOs
Croatia
轻重量级

Class 2 中量级

Super Middleweight(168lb) 39-0-0-0 NC -29 KOs Denmark
29-3-0-0 NC 22
KOs Australia

Middleweight(160lb) 28-2-0 0 NC 12 KOs
Germany

Class 3 轻中量级

Super welterweight(154lb) 29-0-0-0 NC 18 KOs Haiti

Welterweight(147lb) 30-0-0-0 NC 25 KOs
Puerto Rico

Class 4 轻量级

Super Lightweight(140lb) 27-0-0-0 NC 13 KOs Wales

Lightweight(135lb) 32-0-0-0 NC 16 KOs
USA

Class 5 轻量级

Super featherweight
(130lb)
Venezuela

featherweight(126lb) 39-0-1-0 NC 20 KOs
Indonesia

Class 6 轻量级

Super Bantamweight(122lb) 26-2-0-0 NC -18 KOs Panama

Bantamweight(118lb) 20-0-2-0 NC 7 kOs
Ukranie

Class 7 轻量级

Super flyweight(115lb) 30-2-0-0 NC 27 KOs
Venezuela

Flyweight(112lb) 31-4-1-0 NC -15KOs
Japan

Class 8 轻量级

lightweight(108lb) 16-0-0 NC - 7
KO's Argentina

Minimum(105lbs)

It took Mike Tyson only one round to knock out member of Young's
family while Ali took 15 rounds with Jimmy Young . Mike Tyson no doubt
is the best African American boxer although his political association
and achievement is never as great as Muhammad Ali.








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表單的底部
World all heavyweight ratings





page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |
9 | 10 | 11 » [1013]






name

W - L - D

last 6

career

stance

nationality






1

Muhammad Ali

56 (37) - 5 (1) - 0



















1960-1981

orthodox

United States






2

Joe Louis

69 (55) - 3 (2) - 0



















1934-1951

orthodox

United States






3

Gene Tunney

82 (48) - 1 (0) - 3



















1915-1928

orthodox

United States






4

Rocky Marciano

49 (43) - 0 (0) - 0



















1947-1955

orthodox

United States






5

Harry Wills

79 (49) - 10 (5) - 4



















1911-1932

orthodox

United States






6

Larry Holmes

69 (44) - 6 (1) - 0



















1973-2002

orthodox

United States






7

Evander Holyfield

42 (27) - 8 (2) - 2



















1984-2007

orthodox

United States






8

Floyd Patterson

55 (40) - 8 (5) - 1



















1952-1972

orthodox

United States






9

Lennox Lewis

41 (32) - 2 (2) - 1



















1989-2003

orthodox

United Kingdom






10

Jack Johnson

92 (51) - 14 (7) - 11



















1894-1938

orthodox

United States






11

Jack Dempsey

67 (52) - 6 (1) - 11



















1914-1927

orthodox

United States






12

George Foreman

76 (68) - 5 (1) - 0



















1969-1997

orthodox

United States






13

Mike Tyson

50 (44) - 6 (5) - 0



















1985-2005

orthodox

United States






14

Billy Miske

73 (33) - 16 (1) - 13



















1913-1923

orthodox

United States






15

Jersey Joe Walcott

51 (32) - 18 (6) - 2



















1930-1953

orthodox

United States






16

Joe Frazier

32 (27) - 4 (3) - 1



















1965-1981

orthodox

United States






17

Jack Sharkey

38 (13) - 14 (4) - 3



















1924-1936

orthodox

United States






18

James Toney

70 (43) - 6 (0) - 3



















1988-2007

orthodox

United States






19

Primo Carnera

89 (72) - 14 (5) - 0



















1928-1946

orthodox

Italy






20

Sonny Liston

50 (39) - 4 (3) - 0



















1953-1970

orthodox

United States




page: 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 |
9 | 10 | 11 » [1013]

- this data may be incomplete and/or inaccurate -
© BoxRec - 0.1498
Post by mrliu918
Quotation fromhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gladiatorhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Co...
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Ancient Olympic Games
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Ruins of the training grounds at OlympiaThe Ancient Olympic Games,
originally referred to as simply the Olympic Games (Greek: Ολυμπιακοί
Αγώνες; Olympiakoi Agones) were a series of athletic competitions held
between various city-states of Ancient Greece. They began in 776 BC in
Olympia, Greece, and were celebrated until 393 AD[1] The prizes were
olive wreaths, palm branches and woollen ribbons.
Contents [hide]
1 Legendary origin
2 History
3 Olympic truce
4 Events
5 Famous athletes
6 See also
7 Notes
8 References
9 External links
Legendary origin
The origins of the Ancient Olympic Games are unknown, but several
legends and myths have survived. One of these involved Pelops, king of
Olympia and eponymous hero of the Peloponnesus, to whom offerings were
made during the games. The Christian Clement of Alexandria asserted,
"[The] Olympian games are nothing else than the funeral sacrifices of
Pelops."[2] That myth tells of how Pelops' overcame the King and won
the hand of his daughter Hippodamia with the help of Poseidon, his old
lover, a myth linked to the later fall of the house of Atreus and the
sufferings of Oedipus.
A myth tells of the hero Hercules, or Herakles, who won a race at
Olympia and then decreed that the race should be re-enacted every four
years, while another claims that Zeus initiated the festival after his
defeat of the Titan Cronus. Yet another tells of King Iphitos of Elis,
who consulted the Pythia Oracle at Delphi – to try and save his people
from war in the 9th century BC. The prophetess advised him to organize
games in honour of the gods. The Spartan adversary of Iphitos then
decided to stop fighting during these games, which were called
Olympic, after the sanctuary of Olympia where they were held. Had they
been named after Mount Olympus, the mountain on which the Greek gods
were said to live, they would have been called Olympian games rather
than Olympic. The favorite story is that Heracles celebrated cleaning
the Augean Stables by building Olympia with help from Athena.
Whatever their origin, the games were held to be one of the two
central rituals in Ancient Greece, the other being the Eleusinian
Mysteries.[3]
History
The Games first started in Olympia, Greece, in a sanctuary site for
the Greek gods near the towns of Elis and Pisa (both in Elis on the
peninsula of Peloponnesos). The Sanctuary of Zeus in Olympia housed a
12 metre high statue in ivory and gold of Zeus, the father of the
Greek gods, sculpted by Phidias. This statue was one of the ancient
Seven Wonders of the World.
The Olympic Games were held in four year intervals, and later the
Greek method of counting the years even referred to these Games, using
the term Olympiad for the period between two Games. The historian
Ephorus who lived in the 4th century BC is believed to have invented
the use of Olympiads to count years, much as we today use AD and BC.
Previously every Greek state used its own dating system, something
that continued for local events, which led to confusion when trying to
determine dates. "Diodorus states that there was a solar eclipse in
the third year of the 113th Olympiad, which must be the eclipse of 316
BC. This gives us a date of (mid-summer) 786 BC for the first year of
the first Olympiad".[4] Nevertheless, there is disagreement among
scholars whether the games truly began at this time or not.[5]
The "Exedra" reserved for the judges at Olympia on the north
embankment of the stadiumThe only competition held then was, according
to the Greek traveller Pausanias, the stadion race, a race over about
190 metres, measured after the feet of Hercules. The word stadium is
derived from this foot race.
The early Olympics were also held to be the place where the Greek
tradition of athletic nudity was first introduced in 720 BC, either by
the Spartans or by the Megarian Orsippus.
Several groups fought over control of the sanctuary, and hence the
Games, for prestige and political advantage. Pausanias writes that in
668 BC, Pheidon of Argos was commissioned by the town of Pisa to
capture the sanctuary from the town of Elis, which he did and then
personally controlled the Games for that year. The next year Elis
regained control.
The Athenian writer Xenophon in 364 BC gives a contemporary record of
an Elean attack during the Pentathlon final of the Games themselves,
as the Pisans were again in control. The Eleans pushed the defenders
almost to the altar before retreating due to missiles being thrown at
them from the porticos. During that night the defending Arcadians
constructed defensive palisades, and the next morning on seeing the
strength of the defence the Eleans retreated.
Related to the Elis/Pisa conflict, is the Heraea Games, the first
sanctioned competition for women, held in Olympic Stadium. It
originally consisted of foot races only, as did the men's competition.
Some texts, including Pausanias's Description of Greece, c. AD 175,
state that Hippodameia gathered a group known as the "Sixteen Women"
and made them administrators of the Heraea Games, out of gratitude for
her marriage to Pelops. Other texts indicate that the "Sixteen Women"
were peace-makers from Pisa and Elis and, because of their political
competence, became administrators of the Heraea Games.
The Olympic Games were part of the Panhellenic Games, four separate
games held at two- or four-year intervals but arranged so that there
was at least one set of games every year. The Olympic Games were more
important and more prestigious than the Pythian, Nemean, and Isthmian
Games.
Finally, the Olympic Games were suppressed by either Theodosius I in
AD 393 or his grandson Theodosius II in AD 435,[6] as part of the
campaign to impose Christianity as a state religion. The site of
Olympia remained until an earthquake destroyed it in the 6th century
AD.
Olympic truce
During the Olympic Games a truce or ekecheiria was observed. Three
runners known as spondophoroi were sent from Elis to the various
participant cities at each set of games to announce the beginning of
the truce. During this period armies were forbidden from entering
Olympia, wars were suspended and legal disputes and the use of the
death penalty were forbidden. The truce was primarily designed to
allow athletes and visitors to travel safely to the games, and was for
the most part observed, although Thucydides wrote of a situation where
the Spartans were forbidden from attending the games and fined 200,000
drachmas for assaulting the city of Lepreum during the period of the
ekechiria, claiming that the truce had not yet taken hold. [7]
Events
Athletes running the hoplitodromosUnlike the Modern Olympic Games,
only free men who spoke Greek were allowed to participate in the
Ancient Games. They were to some extent "international", though, in
the sense that they included athletes from the various Greek city-
states. Additionally, participants eventually came from Greek colonies
as well, extending the range of the games to far shores of the
Mediterranean and of the Black Sea.
In order to be in the games one had to qualify and the athlete had to
have one's name written down in the lists. It seems that only young
people were allowed to participate, as the Greek writer Plutarch
relates that one young man was rejected for seeming too mature, and
only after his lover interceded with the king of Sparta, who
presumably vouched for his youth, was he permitted to participate.
Before being able to participate, every participant had to take an
oath in front of the statue of Zeus saying that he had been in
training for 10 months.
The Olympic games originally contained one event: the stadion (or
"stade") race, a short sprint measuring between 180 and 240 metres, or
the length of the stadium. The actual length of the race is unknown,
since tracks found at archeological sites, as well as literary
evidence, provide conflicting answers. Runners had to pass five stakes
that divided the lanes: one stake at the start, another at the finish,
and three stakes in-between.
A section of the stone starting line at Olympia, which has a groove
for each footThe diaulos, or 2-stade race, was introduced in 724 BC,
during the 14th Olympic games. The race was a single lap of the
stadium, approximately 400 metres, and scholars debate whether or not
the runners had individual "turning" posts for the return leg of the
race, or whether all the runners approached a common post, turned, and
then raced back to the starting line.
A third foot race, the dolichos, was introduced in 720 BC. Separate
accounts of the race present conflicting evidence as to the actual
length of the dolichos. However, the average stated length of the race
was approximately 18-24 laps, or about three miles (5 km). The event
was run similarly to modern marathons- the runners would begin and end
their event in the stadium proper, but the race course would wind its
way through the Olympic grounds. The course would often flank
important shrines and statues in the sanctuary, passing by the Nike
statue by the temple of Zeus before returning to the stadium.
The last running event added to the Olympic program was the
hoplitodromos, or "Hoplite race," introduced in 520 BC and
traditionally run as the last race of the day. The runners would run
either a single or double diaulos (approximately 400 or 800 yards) in
full or partial armour, carrying a shield and additionally equipped
either with greaves or a helmet.[8][9] As the armour weighed between
50 and 60 lb (27 kg), the hoplitodromos emulated the speed and stamina
needed for warfare. Due to ...
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drydem
2008-09-19 00:25:19 UTC
Permalink
Post by mrliu918
The Roman gladiator was an important part of Western military
tradition of the past. This is how the West train their boxers and
soldiers in the past.
Yu Fung Liu
Misleading.

A roman gladiator was part of Western entertainment circuit
that was influenced by Roman's fascination for violence and gore.
A roman gladiator is closer to todays TV wrestlers. Another
modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between
two Roman Gladiators was this a BBC TV series called
Robot Wars: diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions
attacked one another - man it was reallly fun to see....

Roman soldier was unique military cultural revolution of
ancient times in that they were one of history's first
full-time professional soldiers. Roman soldier were well trained.
They were trained not just to fight as an individual but as a group.
Roman soldiers also were highly skilled engineers and knew
how to build siege weapons and fortifications. Trained and
maintained as a standing military force to be ready at a
moment's notice....
Dirty Sick Pig
2008-09-19 01:46:55 UTC
Permalink
Another modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between two
diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions attacked one
another - man it was reallly fun to see....
Drydem, you should try the Disney Channel too. It will surely entertain
someone of your mental age.

Your amigo,
D.S.P.
drydem
2008-09-19 23:50:13 UTC
Permalink
Another modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between two
diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions attacked one
another - man it was reallly fun to see....
Drydem, you should try the Disney Channel too.  It will surely entertain
  someone of your mental age.
Your amigo,
D.S.P.
LOL
That Goofy suit you wear everyday must get really hot inside!
After a long day of having kids pinch you
you gotta let out some of that pent up aggression and anger.
Well - that's what the usenet is for - so go ahead and vent.
I'm all ears
as Mickey would say. :-)
Dirty Sick Pig
2008-09-20 01:56:56 UTC
Permalink
Post by drydem
Post by Dirty Sick Pig
Another modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between two
diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions attacked one
another - man it was reallly fun to see....
Drydem, you should try the Disney Channel too. It will surely entertain
someone of your mental age.
Your amigo,
D.S.P.
LOL
That Goofy suit you wear everyday must get really hot inside!
After a long day of having kids pinch you
you gotta let out some of that pent up aggression and anger.
Well - that's what the usenet is for - so go ahead and vent.
I'm all ears
as Mickey would say. :-)
My intentions as far as Miss Piggy is concerned are purely carnal. That
is my idea of fun.

Loading Image...

Horney Pig
(Not a mispelling)
drydem
2008-09-22 02:26:08 UTC
Permalink
Post by drydem
Another modern TV show that makes me think of a contest between two
diffferent remote controlled robotic contraptions attacked one
another - man it was reallly fun to see....
Drydem, you should try the Disney Channel too.  It will surely entertain
  someone of your mental age.
Your amigo,
D.S.P.
LOL
That Goofy suit you wear everyday must get really hot inside!
After a long day of having kids pinch you
         you gotta let out some of that pent up aggression and anger.
Well - that's what the usenet is for - so go ahead and vent.
I'm all ears
   as Mickey would say.  :-)
My intentions as far as Miss Piggy is concerned are purely carnal.  That
is my idea of fun.
But Miss Piggy is spoken for.-- She's got the hots for that green
guy... %|

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